Vol. 92

Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2021-03-29

Design and Implementation of FPGA-Based FFT Co-Processor Using Verilog Hardware Description Language

By Yung-Chong Lee, Yee Kit Chan, and Voon Koo
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 92, 47-70, 2021
doi:10.2528/PIERB20122806

Abstract

In this research project, the hardware implementation of a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) will be carried out by using Verilog Hardware Description Language (HDL). Since FFT serves as the core for the Range Doppler Algorithm (RDA) in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) processing, it is of paramount importance to evaluate the algorithm and its computational complexity for the design of an efficient FFT hardware architecture. The design process and Verilog hardware description language which is used to describe and model a digital FPGA-based SAR processor will be introduced. Detailed explanation of the hardware implementation for FFT and Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) in SAR processing are thus presented. The performance evaluations of the proposed processors including the comparison of the proposed processor with MATLAB-based processor, timing considerations of the processor, and lastly the hardware resources usage considerations are delivered at the end of this paper.

Citation


Yung-Chong Lee, Yee Kit Chan, and Voon Koo, "Design and Implementation of FPGA-Based FFT Co-Processor Using Verilog Hardware Description Language," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 92, 47-70, 2021.
doi:10.2528/PIERB20122806
http://jpier.org/PIERB/pier.php?paper=20122806

References


    1. Drinkwater, M. K., et al., "Synthetic aperture radar polarimetry of sea ice," Proceeding of the 1990 International Geoscience and Remmote Sensing Symposium, Vol. 2, 1525-1528, 1990.

    2. Lynne, G. L. and G. R. Taylor, "Geological assessment of SIR-B imagery of the Amadeus Basin," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 24, No. 4, 575-581, 1986.
    doi:10.1109/TGRS.1986.289673

    3. Hovland, H. A., et al., "Slick detection in SAR images," Proceeding of the 1994 International Geoscience and Remmote Sensing Symposium, 2038-2040, 1994.
    doi:10.1109/IGARSS.1994.399647

    4. Walker, B., et al., "A high-resolution, four-band SAR Testbed with real-time image formation," Proceeding of the 1986 International Geoscience and Remmote Sensing Symposium, 1881-1885, 1996.

    5. Suzuki, S., M. Tsuchiya, O. Ochiai, T. Endo, H. Tanimoto, and H. Okubo, "Initial check-out result of the ALOS ground data system," IEEE International Conference on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium 2006, 329-331, 2006.
    doi:10.1109/IGARSS.2006.89

    6. Kong, J. A., et al., "Classification of earth terrain using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar images," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 3, 327-370, 1990.

    7. Bazi, Y., L. Bruzzone, and F. Melgani, "An unsupervised approach based on the generalized Gaussian model to automatic change detection in multitemporal SAR images," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 43, No. 4, 874-887, 2005, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2004.842441.
    doi:10.1109/TGRS.2004.842441

    8. Ciuonzo, D., V. Carotenuto, and A. De Maio, "On multiple covariance equality testing with application to SAR change detection," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 65, No. 19, 5078-5091, 2017, doi: 10.1109/TSP.2017.2712124.
    doi:10.1109/TSP.2017.2712124

    9. Chan, Y. K. and V. Koo, "An introduction to synthetic aperture radar (SAR)," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 2, 27-60, 2008.
    doi:10.2528/PIERB07110101

    10. Vachon, P. W., et al., "Airborne and spaceborne synthetic aperture radar observations of ocean waves," Atmosphere-Ocean, Vol. 32, No. 1, 83-112, 1994.
    doi:10.1080/07055900.1994.9649491

    11. Esposito, C., et al., "On the capabilities of the Italian airborne FMCW AXIS InSARSyste," Remote Sensing, Vol. 12, No. 3, 539, 2020.
    doi:10.3390/rs12030539

    12. Reigber, A., et al., "The high-resolution digital-beamforming airborne SAR system DBFSAR," Remote Sensing, Vol. 12, No. 11, 1710, 2020.
    doi:10.3390/rs12111710

    13. Yoon, S. S., et al., "A modified SweepSAR mode with dual channels for high resolution and wide swath," Journal of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, Vol. 18, No. 3, 199-205, 2018.
    doi:10.26866/jees.2018.18.3.199

    14. Kraus, T., et al., "TerraSAR-X staring spotlight mode optimization and global performance predictions," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1015-1027, 2016.
    doi:10.1109/JSTARS.2015.2431821

    15. Chang, C. Y., et al., "Squint mode processing algorithm," Proc. IGARSS'89, 1702-1706, 1989.

    16. Cumming, I. G., et al., "Interpretations of the Omega-K algorithm and comparisons with other algorithms," Proc. IGARSS'2003, 1455-1458, 2003.

    17. Cumming, I. G. and F. H. Wong, Digital Processing of Synthetic Aperture Radar Data, Artech House, London, 2005.

    18. Franceschetti, G. and R. Lanari, Synthetic Aperture Radar Processing, CRC Press LLC, New York, 1999.

    19. Raney, R. K., et al., "Precision SAR processing using chirp scaling," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 32, No. 4, 786-799, 1994.
    doi:10.1109/36.298008

    20. Soumekh, M., Synthetic Aperture Radar Signal Processing, John Wiley & Sons, 1999.

    21. Xie, X., et al., "Embedded synthetic aperture radar imaging system on compact DSP platform," 2017 International Conference on Electrical and Computing Technologies and Applications (ICECTA), 1-4, 2017.

    22. Jin, M. Y. and C. Wu, "A SAR correlation algorithm which accommodates large range migration," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 22, No. 6, 592-597, 1984.
    doi:10.1109/TGRS.1984.6499176

    23. Wu, C., et al., "Modelling and a correlation algorithm for space borne SAR signals," IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 18, No. 5, 563-574, 1982.
    doi:10.1109/TAES.1982.309269

    24. Curlander, J. C. and R. N. McDounough, Synthetic Aperture Radar, Systems and Signal Processing, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991.

    25. Le, C., S. Chan, F. Cheng, W. Fang, M. Fischman, S. Hensley, R. Johnson, M. Jourdan, M. Marina, B. Parham, F. Rogez, P. Rosen, B. Shah, and S. Taft, "Onboard FPGA-based SAR processing for future spaceborne systems," Proceedings of the IEEE in Radar Conference, 15-20, 2004.

    26., "Verilog's inventor nabs EDA's Kaufman award," EE Times, Cambridge, 2005.

    27. Thomas, D. E. and P. R. Moorby, The Verilog® Hardware Description Language, Springer, New York, 2013.

    28. Lin, M., et al., "Simulation acceleration for dynamic timing analysis with static timing analysis," TENCON 2006 - 2006 IEEE Region 10 Conference, 1-4, 2006.

    29. Cooley, J. W. and J. W. Tukey, "An algorithm for the machine calculation of complex Fourier series," Mathematics Computation, Vol. 19, 297-301, 1965.
    doi:10.1090/S0025-5718-1965-0178586-1