Vol. 72

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Metamaterial-Based High-Efficiency Wireless Power Transfer System at 13.56 MHz for Low Power Applications

By Jun-Feng Chen, Zhixia Ding, Zhaoyang Hu, Shengming Wang, Yongzhi Cheng, Minghai Liu, Bin Wei, and Songcen Wang
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 72, 17-30, 2017


Magnetically coupled resonant wireless power transfer (WPT) has been employed in many applications, including wireless charging of portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and powering of implanted biomedical devices. However, transmission efficiency decreases sharply due to divergence of magnetic field, especially in under coupled region. Electromagnetic (EM) metamaterial (MM) can manipulate the direction of EM fields due to its abnormal effective permittivity or permeability. In this paper, an ultra-thin and extremely sub-wavelength magnetic MM is designed for a 13.56 MHz WPT system to enhance magnetic field and its power transfer efficiency (PTE). The WPT systems are investigated theoretically, experimentally and by simulation. A relatively high maximum efficiency improvement of 41.7% is obtained, and the range of efficient power transfer can be greatly extended. The proposed MM structure is very compact and ultra-thin in size compared with early publications for some miniaturized applications. In addition, large area, homogeneous magnetic field is obtained and discussed using the proposed MM. Finally, the proposed MM is applied in a more practical WPT system (with a low power light bulb load) to reveal its effects. The bulb brightness intuitively verifies the efficiency improvement in the WPT system with the MM.


Jun-Feng Chen, Zhixia Ding, Zhaoyang Hu, Shengming Wang, Yongzhi Cheng, Minghai Liu, Bin Wei, and Songcen Wang, "Metamaterial-Based High-Efficiency Wireless Power Transfer System at 13.56 MHz for Low Power Applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 72, 17-30, 2017.


    1. Anderson, L. I., "Nikola Tesla on his work with alternating currents and their application to wireless telegraphy, telephony and transmission of power," Telephony and Transmission of Power Twenty First Century Books, 88-147, 2002.

    2. Garnica, J., R. A. Chinga, and J. Lin, "Wireless power transmission: From far field to near field," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 101, No. 6, 1321-1331, 2013.

    3. McSpadden, J. O. and J. C. Mankins, "Space solar power programs and microwave wireless power transmission technology," IEEE Micro. Mag., Vol. 3, No. 4, 46-57, 2002.

    4. Kurs, A, A. Karalis, R. Moffatt, J. D. Joannopoulos, P. Fisher, and M. Soljacic, "Wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances," Science, Vol. 317, 83-86, 2007.

    5. Sample, A. P., D. A. Meyer, and J. R. Smith, "Analysis, experimental results, and range adaptation of magnetically coupled resonators for wireless power transfer," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 58, No. 2, 544-554, 2011.

    6. Chen, L., S. Liu, Y. C. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, "An optimizable circuit structure for high-efficiency wireless power transfer," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 60, No. 1, 339-349, 2013.

    7. Lee, C. K., W. Zhong, and S. Hui, "Effects of magnetic coupling of nonadjacent resonators on wireless power domino-resonator systems," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 27, No. 4, 1905-1916, 2012.

    8. Ahn, D. and S. Hong, "A study on magnetic field repeater in wireless power transfer," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 60, No. 1, 360-371, 2013.

    9. Che, B. J., G. H. Yang, F. Y. Meng, K. Zhang, J. H. Fu, Q. Wu, and L. Sun, "Omnidirectional non-radiative wireless power transfer with rotating magnetic field and efficiency improvement by metamaterial," Appl. Phys. A --- Mater. Sci. & Processing, Vol. 116, No. 4, 1579-1586, 2014.

    10. Rodriguez, E. S. G., A. K. RamRakhyani, D. Schurig, and G. Lazzi, "Compact low-frequency metamaterial design for wireless power transfer efficiency enhancement," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., Vol. 64, No. 5, 1644-1654, 2016.

    11. Pham, T. S., A. K. Ranaweera, V. D. Lam, and J. W. Lee, "Experiments on localized wireless power transmission using a magneto-inductive wave two-dimensional metamaterial cavity," Appl. Phys. Exp., Vol. 9, 044101, 2016.

    12. Zhang, Y. Y., C. Yao, H. J. Tang, and Y. C. Li, "Spatially mapped metamaterials make a new magnetic concentrator for the two-coil system," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 150, 49-57, 2015.

    13. Cho, Y., J. J. Kim, D. H. Kim, S. Lee, H. Kim, C. Song, S. Kong, H. Kim, C. Seo, S. Ahn, and J. Kim, "Thin PCB-type metamaterials for improved efficiency and reduced EMF leakage in wireless power transfer systems," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., Vol. 64, No. 2, 353-364, 2016.

    14. Chen, J. F., Z. Y. Hu, S. M. Wang, M. H. Liu, Y. Z. Cheng, Z. X. Ding, B. Wei, and S. C. Wang, "Application of ultra-thin assembled planar metamaterial for wireless power transfer system," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 65, 153-162, 2016.

    15. Chabalko, M. J., J. Besnoff, and D. S. Ricketts, "Magnetic field enhancement in wireless power with metamaterials and magnetic resonant couplers," IEEE Antenna Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 15, 452-455, 2016.

    16. Pendry, J. B., "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 85, 3966, 2000.

    17. Urzhumov, Y. and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial-enhanced coupling between magnetic dipoles for efficient wireless power transfer," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 83, No. 20, 205114, 2011.

    18. Choi, J. and C. H. Seo, "High-efficiency wireless energy transmission using magnetic resonance based on negative refractive index metamaterial," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 106, 33-47, 2010.

    19. Huang, D., Y. Urzhumov, D. R. Smith, K. H. Teo, and J. Zhang, "Magnetic superlens-enhanced inductive coupling for wireless power transfer," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 111, No. 6, 064902, 2012.

    20. Wang, B., K. H. Teo, T. Nishino, W. Yerazunis, J. Barnwell, and J. Zhang, "Experiments on wireless power transfer with metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 98, No. 25, 254101, 2011.

    21. Wang, B., W. Yerazunis, and K. H. Teo, "Wireless power transfer: Metamaterials and array of coupled resonators," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 101, No. 6, 1359-1368, 2013.

    22. Lipworth, G., J. Ensworth, K. Seetharam, D. Huang, J. S. Lee, P. Schmalenberg, T. Nomura, M. S. Reynolds, D. R. Smith, and Y. Urzhumov, "Magnetic metamaterial superlens for increased range wireless power transfer," Sci. Rep., Vol. 4, 3642, 2014.

    23. Ranaweera, A. L. A. K., T. P. Doung, and J. W. Lee, "Experimental investigation of compact metamaterial for high efficiency midrange wireless power transfer applications," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 116, No. 4, 043914, 2014.

    24. Ranaweera, A. L. A. K., C. A. Moscoso, and J. W. Lee, "Anisotropic metamaterial for efficiency enhancement of mid-range wireless power transfer under coil misalignment," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., Vol. 48, No. 45, 455104, 2015.

    25. Chen, W. C., C. M. Bingham, K. M. Mak, N. W. Caira, and W. J. Padilla, "Extremely subwavelength planar magnetic metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 85, No. 20, 201104, 2012.

    26. Bilotti, F., A. Toscano, and L. Vegni, "Design of spiral and multiple split-ring resonators for the realization of miniaturized metamaterial samples," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 55, No. 8, 2258-2267, 2007.

    27. Baena, J. D., R. Marques, F. Medina, and J. Martel, "Artificial magnetic metamaterial design by using spiral resonators," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 69, No. 1, 014402, 2004.

    28. Huang, Y., H. J. Tang, E. C. Chen, and C. Yao, "Effect on wireless power transmission with different layout of left-handed materials," AIP Adv., Vol. 3, No. 7, 072134, 2013.

    29. Smith, D. R., D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 71, No. 3, 036617, 2005.

    30. Smith, D. R., S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 65, No. 19, 195104, 2002.

    31. Wu, Q., Y. H. Li, N. Gao, F. Yang, Y. Q. Chen, K. Fang, Y. W. Zhang, and H. Chen, "Wireless power transfer based on magnetic metamaterials consisting of assembled ultra-subwavelength meta-atoms," EPL-Europhys. Lett., Vol. 109, No. 6, 68005, 2015.

    32. Cheng, Y. Z., J. Jin, W. L. Li, J. F. Chen, B. Wang, and R. Z. Gong, "Indefinite-permeability metamaterial lens with finite size for miniaturized wireless power transfer system," Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AEU), Vol. 70, No. 9, 1282-1287, 2016.

    33. Fan, Y., L. Li, S. Yu, C. Zhu, and C. H. Liang, "Experimental study of efficient wireless power transfer system integrating with highly sub-wavelength metamaterials," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 141, 769-784, 2013.

    34. Son, H. C., J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, K. H. Kim, and Y. J. Park, "Self-resonant coil with coaxial-like capacitor for wireless power transfer," IEEE Microw. Conf. Proc. (APMC), 90-93, Asia-Pacific, 2011.

    35. Kalantarov, P. L. and L. A. Zeitlin, Inductances Calculation Handbook, 1986, translated by T. Chen, et al., China Machine Press, Beijing, 1992 (in Chinese).

    36. Lyu, Y. L., F. Y. Meng, G. H. Yang, B. J. Che, Q. Wu, L. Sun, D. Erni, and J. L. W. Li, "A method of using nonidentical resonant coils for frequency splitting elimination in wireless power transfer," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 30, No. 11, 6097-6107, 2015.

    37. Mongia, R., RF and Microwave Coupled-Line Circuits, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 2007.

    38. Chen, J., Feedback Networks: Theory and Circuit Application, World Scientific, Singapore, 2007.

    39. Freire, M. J. and R. Marques, "Planar magnetoinductive lens for three-dimensional subwavelength imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 86, 182505, 2005.

    40. Duong, T. P. and J. W. Lee, "Experimental results of high-efficiency resonant coupling wireless power transfer using a variable coupling method," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., Vol. 21, No. 8, 442-444, 2011.

    41. Niu, W. Q., W. Gu, J. X. Chu, and A. D. Shen, "Coupled-mode analysis of frequency splitting phenomena in CPT systems," Electron. Lett., Vol. 48, No. 12, 723-724, 2012.