This paper presents a novel quad-band power divider with equal power division ratio. The proposed power divider is realized using two cascaded sections of dual-band transformers based on coupled microstrip lines. Limitations of using dual-band quarter-wavelength transformers based on coupled lines are studied through parametric analysis to obtain useful design guidelines related to available fabrication facilities. General closed-form expressions are used to calculate design parameters. To verify analysis and design methodologies, a prototype of quad-band equal power divider is proposed. Compared to conventional quad-band power dividers using sections of transmission line transformers the proposed power divider records a size reduction of about 20% and reduced parasitic effects at higher frequencies according to the usage of only two resistors instead of four with much smaller ohmic values. In addition, a quad-band power divider is proposed, fabricated and measured for 3G and 4G applications at 2.1, 2.5, 3.5, and 3.8 GHz frequencies. Measured and simulated data are in very good match which validates the novel design.
2. Elez, A. V., P. V. Elez, J. Bonache, and F. Martin, "Compact power dividers with filtering capability for ground penetrating RADAR applications," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 54, No. 3, 608-611, Mar. 2012.
3. Mitu, S. S. I., S. L. Taiwo, and M. Sharawi, "Aperture stacked microstrip equal/unequal power divider," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 54, No. 3, 784-785, Mar. 2012.
4. Ahmed, O. M. H., A. Elboushi, A.-R. Sebak, and T. A. Denidni, "Numerical and experimental investigations of defected ground triangular-shaped power divider for C-band applications," Mi- crowave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 54, No. 4, 1022-1028, Apr. 2012.
5. He, J., Z. F. Chen, B. H. Yang, and M. Y. Xiong, "Miniaturized microstrip Wilkinson power divider with capacitor loading," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 54, No. 1, 61-63, Jan. 2012.
6. Zhou, B., W. Sheng, and H. Wang, "Harmonics suppression of Wilkinson power divider using bond wires with adjustable rejection bands," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 54, No. 3, 775-777, Mar. 2012.
7. Zhuge, C., K. Song, and Y. Fan, "Ultra-wideband (UWB) power divider based on signal interference techniques,", Vol. 54, No. 4, 1028-1030, Apr. 2012.
8. Ibrahim, S. Z., M. E. Bialkowski, and A. M. Abbosh, "Ultra wideband quadrature power divider employing double wireless via," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 54, No. 2, 300-305, Feb. 2012.
9. Li, B., X. Wu, N. Yang, and W. Wu, "Dual-band equal/unequal Wilkinson power divider based on coupled-line section with short-circuited stub," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 111, 163-178, 2011.
10. Shamaileh, K., A. Qaroot, and N. Dib, "Non-uniform transmission line transformers and their application in the design of compact multi-band power dividers," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 113, 269-284, 2011.
11. Shamaileh, K., A. Qaroot, N. Dib, and A. Sheta, "Design and analysis of multi-frequency Wilkinson power dividers using non-unifor transmission lines," International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-aided Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 5, 526-533, Jan. 2011.
12. Bao, X. L., G. Ruvio, and M. J. Ammann, "Directional dual-band slot antenna with dual bandgap high impedance surface reflector," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 9, 1-11, 2009.
13. Srisathit, S., S. Vimnphun, K. Bandudej, M. Chongcheawchanman, and A. Worapishet, "A dual-band 3-dB three-port power divider based on a two-section transmission line transformer," IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symposium Digest, Vol. 1, 35-38, 2003.
14. Wu, L., Z. Sun, H. Yilmaz, and M. Berroth, "A dual-frequency Wilkinson power divider," IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 54, No. 1, 278-284, 2006.
15. Kampitaki, D. G., A. T. Hatzigaidas, A. I. Papastergiou, and Z. D. Zaharis, "On the design of a dual-band unequal power divider useful for mobile communications," Electronic Engineering, Vol. 89, 443-450, 2007.
16. Cheng, K. M. and C. Law, "A novel approach to the design and implementation of dual-band power divider," IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 56, No. 2, 487-491, Feb. 2008.
17. Monzon, C., "A small dual frequency transformer in two sections," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Technique, Vol. 51, No. 4, 1157-1161, 2003.
18. Chongcheawchamnan, M., S. Patisang, S. Srisathit, R. Phrom- loungsri, and S. Bunnjwaht, "Analysis and design of three section transmission line transformer," IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 53, No. 7, 2458-2462, 2005.
19. Jwaied, H., F. Muwanes, and N. Dib, "Analysis and design of quad band four sections transmission line impedance transformer," Aces Journal, Vol. 22, No. 3, 381-387, 2007.
20. Dib, N. and M. Khodier, "Design and optimization of multi-band Wilkinson power divider," International Journal of RF and Microwave-aided Engineering Wireless and Optical Communications, 14-20, Sep. 2007.
21. Wang, X.-H., X. Chen, X.-W. Shi, F. Wei, and Y. Bai, "A novel planar three-way tri band power divider," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 52, No. 1, 182-184, Jan. 2010.
22. Jwaid, H., F. Muwanes, and N. Dib, "Design and analysis of quad-band Wilkinson power divider," International Journal on Wireless and Optical Communications, Vol. 4, No. 3, 305-312, 2007.
23. Mohra, A. S. and M. A. Alkanhal, "Dual band Wilkinson power divider using T-sections," Journal of Microwave and Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications, Vol. 7, No. 2, 83-90, Dec. 2008.
24. Wu, Y., Y. Liu, and S. Li, "A compact pi-structure dual band transformer," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 88, 121-134, 2008.
25. Jrad, A., T. Safarjalani, J.-M. Duchamp, P. Ferrari, and A. El-Helwani, "The three symmetric power divider ports, compact, fixed, and tunable based on microstrip technology," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 51, No. 1, 229-232, Jan. 2009.
26. Wu, Y., Y. Liu, S. Li, and C. Yu, "Novel pi-type stepped-impedance stub branch line and its application to power divider with high suppression of intermediate frequencies," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 53, No. 10, 2360-2363, Oct. 2011.
27. Yang, T., C. Liu, L. Yan, and K. Huang, "A compact dual band power divider using planar artificial transmission lines For GSM/DCS applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 10, 185-191, 2009.
28. Chen, C.-C., H.-T. Sun, and Y.-R. Chen, "A novel unequal-power divider based on synthetic quasi-TEM transmission line design," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 54, No. 2, 535-539, Feb. 2012.
29. Russo, I., L. Boccia, G. Amendola, and H. Schumacher, "Compact hybrid coaxial architecture for UWB quasi-optical power combiners," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 122, 77-92, 2012.
30. Wu, Y.-L., H. Zhou, Y.-X. Zhang, and Y.-A. Liu, "An unequal Wilkinson power divider for a frequency and its first harmonic," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 18, No. 11, 737-739, 2008.
31. Wu, Y., Y. Liu, and S. Li, "An unequal dual frequency Wilkinson power divider with optional isolation structure," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 91, 393-411, 2009.
32. Wu, Y., Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, J. Gao, and H. Zhou, "A dual band unequal Wilkinson power divider without reactive components," IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 57, No. 1, 216-222, Jan. 2009.
33. Kim, T. G., B. Lee, and M.-J. Park, "Dual band unequal Wilkinson power divider with reduced length," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 52, No. 5, 1187-1190, May 2010.
34. Lin, Z. and Q.-X. Chu, "A novel approach to the design of dual-band power divider with variable power division ratio based on coupled lines," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 103, 271-284, 2010.
35. Monjia, R., I. Bahl, and B. Bhartia, RF and Microwave Coupled Line Circuits, Artech House, 1999.
36. Matthaei, G. L., L. Young, and E. M. T. Jones, Microwave Filters, Impedance-matching Networks, and Coupling Structures, No. 7, 779, Artech House Inc., 1980.