Vol. 34

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Dominant Factors Affecting Temperature Elevation in Adult and Child Models Exposed to Solar Radiation in Hot Environment

By Ryuto Hanatani, Ilkka Laakso, Akimasa Hirata, Masami Kojima, and Hiroshi Sasaki
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 34, 47-61, 2011


The number of children suffering from heat-related illness has been increasing in recent years. Children are more susceptible to heat-related illness than adults, which is considered to be caused by morphological and functional differences between adults and children. In the present study, the temperature change and perspiration in adult and child models during a simultaneous exposure to solar radiation and a hot environment are evaluated computationally. First, the power absorbed in the human body due to solar radiation is computed by the FDTD method for the Maxwell equations. Then, the temperature distribution inside the human body is modeled by the bioheat equation taking into account the thermophysiological response. Anatomically-based Japanese adult male and 3-year-old child phantoms are used. An approximative analytical solution for the core temperature elevation is also derived to clarify the dominant factors affecting the temperature elevation. From our computational results, the core temperature elevation in the child phantom for both the solar and hot-environment exposures was larger than that in the adult phantom. The temperature elevation in the child was found to be mainly caused by the exposure to a hot environmental temperature while that in the adult was due to the environmental heat and solar radiation almost equally. This difference was mainly attributed to the difference in the surface area-to-mass ratio between the adult and child phantoms. This finding was confirmed by comparison with an approximative analytical solution.


Ryuto Hanatani, Ilkka Laakso, Akimasa Hirata, Masami Kojima, and Hiroshi Sasaki, "Dominant Factors Affecting Temperature Elevation in Adult and Child Models Exposed to Solar Radiation in Hot Environment," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 34, 47-61, 2011.


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