Three novel shapes of mushroom-like electromagnetic band-gap (EBG) structures are presented in this paper. The three shapes are based on rectangular metal strip with different combinations. The performances of the three-shape structures are studied by using both incident plane wave method and transmission coefficient approach. The effect of height and via location are also studied to achieve multi or wide band gap. These shapes are embedded in microstrip patch antenna substrate. The performance of the MPA is improved as increasing the antenna gain by 5 dBi, decreasing the surface current so improving the antenna radiation pattern as well as reducing the antenna size by more than 70% compared to the original size. The new shapes of EBG structure are integrated with MPA as a ground plane, where the conducting ground plane is replaced by a high impedance surface EBG layer. Parametric studies are conducted to maximize their impedance bandwidth and gain. It is found that the antenna bandwidth increased by about four times than original band and its gain is similarly increased. Sample of these antennas are fabricated and tested, to verify the designs.
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