Vol. 6

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2008-04-03

Electromagnetic Pulse Propagation Over Nonuniform Earth Surface: Numerical Simulation

By Alexei Popov and Vladimir Kopeikin
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 6, 37-64, 2008
doi:10.2528/PIERB08031102

Abstract

Computational aspects of EM pulse propagation along the nonuniform earth surface are considered. For ultrawide-band pulses without carrier, the exact wave equation in a narrow vicinity of the wave front is reduced to a time-domain version of the Leontovich- Fock parabolic equation. To solve it by finite differences, we introduce a time-domain analog of the impedance BC and a nonlocal BC of transparency. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the influence of soil conductivity on the received pulse waveform. For a high-frequency modulated EM pulse, we develop an asymptotic approach based on the ray structure of the monochromatic wave field calculated at the carrier frequency. As an example, a problem of target altitude determination from overland radar data is considered.

Citation


Alexei Popov and Vladimir Kopeikin, "Electromagnetic Pulse Propagation Over Nonuniform Earth Surface: Numerical Simulation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 6, 37-64, 2008.
doi:10.2528/PIERB08031102
http://jpier.org/PIERB/pier.php?paper=08031102

References


    1. Leontovich, M. A., "A new method to solve problems of EM wave propagation over the earth surface," USSR Academy of Sciences Trans., Physics Series, Vol. 8, No. 1, 16-22, 1944 (in Russian).

    2. Leontovich, M. A. and V. A. Fock, "Solution of the problem of electromagnetic wave propagation along the Earth's surface by the method of parabolic equation," J. Phus. USSR, Vol. 10, 13-23, 1946.

    3. Malyuzhinets, G. D., "Progress in understanding diffraction phenomena," Soviet. Phys. Uspekhi, Vol. 69, 321-334, 1959.

    4. Babic, V. M. and V. S. Buldyrev, Short-Wavelength Diffraction Theory: Asymptotic Methods, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990.

    5. Lee, D., A. D. Pierce, and E. C. Shang, "Parabolic equation development in the twentieth century," J. Comput. Acoustics, Vol. 8, No. 4, 527-637, 2000.

    6. Vainstein, L. A., Open Resonators and open Waveguides, Soviet Radio, Moscow, 1966 (in Russian).

    7. Feit, M. D. and J. A. Fleck Jr., "Light propagation in graded-index fibers," Appl. Optics, Vol. 17, 3990-3998, 1978.

    8. Kopylov, Yu. V., A. V. Popov, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Application of the parabolic wave equation to X-ray diffraction optics," Optics Communications, Vol. 118, 619-636, 1995.
    doi:10.1016/0030-4018(95)00295-J

    9. Malyuzhinets, G. D., A. V. Popov, and Yu. N. Cherkashin, 3rd All-Union Symposium on Diffraction of Waves, Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1964.

    10. Tappert, F. D., The Parabolic Approximation Method. Lecture Notes in Physics, Vol. 70, 224-287, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977.

    11. Leontovich, M. A., "Investigations on Radiowave Propagation," Academy of Sciences, Part 2, 5-12, 1948 (in Russian).

    12. Fock, V. A., Electromagnetic Diffraction and Propagation Problems, Pergamon Press, 1965.

    13. Claerbout, G. F., Fundamentals of Geophysical Data Processing with Applications to Petroleum Prospecting, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1976.

    14. Popov, A. V. and S. A. Hosiosky, "On a generalized parabolic equation of diffraction theory," J. Comp. Math. and Math. Phys., Vol. 17, No. 2, 527-533, 1977 (in Russian).

    15. Polyansky, E. A., "On the relation between solutions of Helmholtz and Schroedinger type equations," J. Comp. Math. Math. Phys., Vol. 2, No. 1, 241-249, 1972 (in Russian).

    16. Levy, M. F., "Parabolic equation modelling of propagation over irregular terrain," Electronics Letters, Vol. 26, 1153-1155, 1990.
    doi:10.1049/el:19900746

    17. Baskakov, V. A. and A. V. Popov, "Implementation of transparent boundaries for numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation," Wave Motion, Vol. 14, No. 1, 123-128, 1991.
    doi:10.1016/0165-2125(91)90053-Q

    18. Marcus, S. V., "A generalized impedance method for application of the parabolic approximation to underwater acoustics," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 89, 391-398, 1991.
    doi:10.1121/1.401263

    19. Levy, M. F., "Parabolic equation method for electromagnetic wave propagation," IEE Electromagnetic Wave Series, Vol. 45, 2000.

    20. Collins, M. D., "The time-domain solution of the wide-angle parabolic equation including the effect of sediment dispersion," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 84, No. 6, 2114-2125, 1988.
    doi:10.1121/1.397057

    21. Vainstein, L. A. and D. E. Vakman, Frequency Discrimination in Oscillation and Wave Theory, Nauka, Moscow, 1983 (in Russian).

    22. Heyman, E. and L. B. Felsen, "Gaussian beam and pulsed-beam dynamics: Complex-source and complex-spectrum formulations within and beyond paraxial asymptotics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Vol. 18, No. 7, 1588-1611, 2001.
    doi:10.1364/JOSAA.18.001588

    23. Zurk, L. M., "Experimental observation and statistics of multipath from terrain with application to overland height finding," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 47, No. 1, 121-131, 1999.
    doi:10.1109/8.753002

    24. Popov, A. V., V. V. Kopeikin, N. Y. Zhu, and F. M. Landstorfer, "Modelling EM transient propagation over irregular dispersive boundary," Electronics Letters, Vol. 38, No. 14, 691-692, 2002.
    doi:10.1049/el:20020426

    25. Popov, A. V., V. V. Kopeikin, and F. M. Landstorfer, "Full-wave simulation of overland radar pulse propagation," FElectronics Letters, Vol. 39, No. 6, 550-552, 2003.
    doi:10.1049/el:20030338

    26. Popov, A. V. and V. V. Kopeikin, Progress of Modern Radioelectronics, No. 1, 20-35, Radiotechnika, Moscow, 2005 (in Russian).

    27. Popov, A. V., "Solution of parabolic equation of diffraction theory by finite difference method," J. Comp. Math. and Math. Phys., Vol. 8, No. 5, 1140-1144, 1968.

    28. Popov, A. V., "Accurate modeling of transparent boundaries in quasi-optics," Radio Science, Vol. 31, No. 6, 1781-1790, 1996.
    doi:10.1029/96RS02538

    29. Babic, V. M., V. S. Buldyrev, and I. A. Molotkov, Space-Time Ray Method. Linear and Nonlinear Waves, SPB University Press, St. Petersburg, 1995 (in Russian).