The small-scale fading behavior in common wireless communication systems can be predicted by a series of propagation models. Although these types of models are feasible and effective for the situations of transmitting/receiving (Tx/Rx) antennas in relatively open surrounding environments, they are unable to address the coupling between the antenna and environment. In order to overcome this difficulty, a full-wave numerical method is applied in terms of the advantage in considering the interaction between complicated environments and the Tx/Rx antennas, and it can take into account the effect of the interaction on signals. In this paper, an integrative modeling technique involving FDTD method, two-path propagation model and multi-path statistical distribution model is presented, which combines the deterministic and statistical methods. For achieving reliable communication especially in high-speed railway environment, high sampling rate and adequate sampling points are needed for analyzing the propagation properties of the radio frequency (RF) link. This can be easily achieved by the integrative modeling technique, and the output voltage and current of train antenna under the illumination of base-station (BS) antenna along the railway can be given in detail. Results obtained from the integrative simulation for three different multi-path statistical distribution models are presented and analyzed.
An inverse equivalent surface current method working with equivalent electric and/or magnetic surface current densities on appropriately chosen Huygens surfaces is investigated. The considered model with triangular surface meshes is compatible with the models known from method of moments (MoM) solutions of surface integral equations. Divergence conforming current basis functions of order 0.5 and of order 1.5 are considered, where the order 0.5 functions are the well-known Rao-Wilton-Glisson basis functions. Known near-field samples typically obtained from measurements are mapped on the unknown equivalent surface current densities utilizing the radiation integrals of the currents as forward operator, where the measurement probe influence is formulated in a MoM like weighting integral. The evaluation of the forward operator is accelerated by adaptation of the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM) to the inverse formulation, where the MLFMM representation is the key to full probe correction by employing only the far-field patterns of the measurement probe antennas. The resulting fully probe corrected algorithm is very flexible and efficient, where it is found that the computation speed is mostly dependent on the MLFMM configuration of the problem and not that much on the particular equivalent current expansion as long as the expansion is able to represent the currents sufficiently well. Inverse current and far-field pattern results are shown for a variety of problems, where near-field samples obtained from simulations as well as from realistic measurements are considered.
Omni-directional antennas are useful for variety of wireless communication devices as well as capable of handling the additional different frequency bands since the radiation pattern allows good transmission and reception from a mobile unit. However, to implement the two frequencies on a single antenna with wide bandwidth can be significant because of the presence of mutual coupling and interference effects between the two radiating elements. In this paper, a novel method of combining dual-band frequencies onto a single layer board with wide bandwidth is described. A dual-band printed dipole antenna is designed in this study by combining a rectangular and two "L" shaped radiating elements and are embedded on a single layer structure with relatively small size. The obtained results show that the proposed dual-band omni-directional microstrip antenna achieves high antenna efficiency and provides better bandwidth while maintaining the structural compact size.
The design of a flexible uniplanar AMC is presented. A prototype is manufactured and characterized based on reflection coe±cient phase under flat and bent conditions. The designed prototype shows broad AMC operation bandwidth and polarization angle independency in both flat and bent situations. Its angular margin when operating under oblique incidence is also tested. FEM simulations and measurements in an anechoic chamber are presented.
We apply the full-wave electromagnetic theory to study electromagnetic scattering by a small cylindrical particle with radial anisotropy for normally incident light with transverse magnetic (TM) polarization. The scattering coefficients are derived, when the radial anisotropies in both the permittivity and permeability tensors are taken into account. It is shown that the surface and volume plasmon resonances can be identified by the sign of dεt/dq, in which εt is the permittivity element in a direction tangential to the local r-axis, and q is the size parameter. The near field distributions for surface and volume modes are illustrated by finite element method. It is found that small changes of anisotropy can affect the scattering efficiencies significantly. Moreover, the quadrupole and octupole resonant peaks may be much higher and sharper than those of dipole resonance in the scattering efficiency spectra.
The design of an octagonal-shaped microstrip-fed planar monopole antenna for ultrawideband (UWB) operation is studied. Two inverted T-shaped slits are embedded on the ground plane to allow band rejection characteristic from 5 to 6 GHz (for VSWR < 2). To enable switching capability for this band rejection function, a PIN diode is connected to each slit via a specified chip inductor that will be further investigated. Several prototypes were constructed and the measured results show that the proposed antenna can provide an operating bandwidth from 3.07 to 10.7 GHz, except for the rejected band. Simulation analyses are also carried out to validate the experimental results.
A novel compact ultra-wideband (UWB) band-pass filter (BPF) based on surface-coupled structure is proposed. The surface-coupled structures and Y-shaped shorted stub resonator are adopted as quasi-lumped circuit elements to achieve UWB pass-band. To avoid the interference of the wireless local area network (WLAN) at 5.25 and 5.775 GHz, two different quarter-wavelength lines are arranged on the ground of UWB BPF to generate dual narrow stop bands. Being developed from the quasi-lumped elements, the proposed UWB BPFs have very compact size. The fabricated UWB BPFs have the advantages of low insertion loss, good selectivity and flat group delay. Good agreement between equivalent circuit modeled, simulated and measured responses of these filters is demonstrated.
The limitation of the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of an airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system is not a serious problem to obtain high azimuth resolution and wide swath imaging compared with a spaceborne SAR system. Hence, continuous high azimuth resolution imagery over a wide area can be obtained using an antenna having a wide beamwidth. Since a small antenna with a large beamwidth has very low gain, which results in difficulty in detection; the azimuth beam pattern optimization of a large active phased array antenna is needed for airborne SAR system optimization. To improve the airborne SAR system performance, such as the noise-equivalent sigma zero (NEσ0), the azimuth resolution, the radiometric accuracy (RA), and the azimuth ambiguity ratio (AAR), we present an optimal azimuth beam pattern mask template and suggest an azimuth beam pattern satisfying the mask template using the particle swarm optimization (PSO). The mode having the proposed beam pattern guarantees continuous and high resolution images, simultaneously. Using a point target simulation, the advantages of the mode are shown compared to strip-map and spotlight modes.
We apply the ESPRIT algorithm to decompose the currents on a helical antenna into different traveling wave modes. The strengths, phase velocities and decay constants of the various modes are extracted across frequencies. Their contributions to the antenna performance including gain, polarization and time-domain radiated pulse shape are investigated. Our results show that the T0+ mode is a dominant contributor to the helix gain at the low end of the frequency band while the T1+ mode contributes significantly to the gain at higher frequencies. It is also found that the reflected current modes from the open end reduce the circular polarization purity of the helix. Lastly, it is observed that the T1+ and T0+ modes contribute constructively to a low-dispersion pulse from the antenna.
This paper proposes a new positioning system utilizing mobile readers that are programmed to move in a zigzag pattern to locate the tags. The proposed zigzag mobility pattern is able to cover an area completely within a given period, determine optimal number of required mobile readers, and find out reader placement and movement pattern. The received signal strength (RSS) model is used to exchange the information over a short range by estimating the position of the tag by means of distance information between the reader and the tag. The results obtained from this study point out that the proposed method is able to provide near exact tag position. The proposed method can achieve average error as low as 0.6 m. With this proposed method, the scanning of large areas, such as warehouses, libraries, and storage areas can be done very quickly. Mobile reader is proposed because it is cost-effective, fast, and is able to provide relatively accurate results.
This paper reports an exact and explicit representation of the differential operators from Maxwell's equations. In order to solve these equations, the spline basis functions with compact support are used. We describe the electromagnetic analysis of the lamellar grating as an eigenvalues problem. We choose the second degree spline as basis functions. The basis functions are projected onto a set of test functions. We use and compare several test functions namely: Dirac, Pulse and Spline. We show that the choice of the basis and test functions has a great influence on the convergence speed. The outcomes are compared with those obtained by implementing the Finite-Difference Modal Method which is used as a reference. In order to improve the numerical results an adaptive spatial resolution is used. Compared to the reference method, we show a significantly improved convergence when using the spline expansion projected onto spline test functions.
Although MUSIC (MUltiple SIgnal Classification)-type algorithm has shown feasibilities as a non-iterative imaging technique of thin penetrable electromagnetic inclusion from its far-field multi-static response (MSR) matrix, it induces a poor result whenever one tries to obtain such inclusion of both dielectric and magnetic contrast with respect to the embedding homogeneous space R2 case. In this paper, we develop an improved non-iterative imaging algorithm based on the modeling of multi-frequency MSR matrix according to a rigorous asymptotic expansion of the scattering amplitude. Numerical examples exhibit that presented algorithm performs satisfactorily for single and multiple thin inclusions, even with a fair amount of random noise.
We present an iterative inner-outer scheme for the efficient solution of large-scale electromagnetics problems involving perfectly-conducting objects formulated with surface integral equations. Problems are solved by employing the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) on parallel computer systems. In order to construct a robust preconditioner, we develop an approximate MLFMA (AMLFMA) by systematically increasing the efficiency of the ordinary MLFMA. Using a flexible outer solver, iterative MLFMA solutions are accelerated via an inner iterative solver, employing AMLFMA and serving as a preconditioner to the outer solver. The resulting implementation is tested on various electromagnetics problems involving both open and closed conductors. We show that the processing time decreases significantly using the proposed method, compared to the solutions obtained with conventional preconditioners in the literature.
An analytical model for the description of the electromagnetic waves propagation in a layered medium consisting of sectors having the locally spherical symmetric distributions of refractivity is introduced. Model presents analytical expressions for the phase path and refractive attenuation of electromagnetic waves. Influence of the inclined ionospheric layers is a cause of the ionospheric interference in the trans-ionospheric communication satellite-to-satellite or satellite-to-Earth links. It follows from the analytical model that the identification of the inclined ionospheric layers contributions and measurements of their location and parameters may be fulfilled by use of comparative analysis of the amplitude variations and the eikonal acceleration of the RO signals. Model is applied to analysis of the radio occultation (RO) signals propagating through the ionosphere and atmosphere. Model explains existence of the ionospheric contributions in the RO signals at the altitudes 30-90 km of the RO ray perigee as connected with influence of a tangent point in the ionosphere where the electron density gradient is perpendicular to the RO ray trajectory. By use of the CHAMP RO amplitude data a description of different types of the ionospheric contributions to the RO signals is introduced and compared with results of measurements obtained earlier in the communication link satellite-to-Earth at frequency 1.5415 GHz of MARSAT satellite.
A novel multi-wavelength fiber optical parametric oscillator (MW-FOPO) with a ring cavity structure is proposed. In the ring cavity of the MW-FOPO, a Sagnac loop filter which is formed by a 3-dB optical coupler, a polarization controller and a segment of polarization maintained fiber is used as the comb filter, and a segment of highly nonlinear fiber is used as the gain medium. Multi-wavelength lasing of the MW-FOPO with a wavelength spacing of about 0.8nm is achieved and its power stability at room temperature is demonstrated by measuring peak power fluctuation within 42 minutes for 5 lasing wavelengths. The output spectrum of the MW-FOPO covers a large wavelength region from 1500nm to 1610 nm. A comparison of the output spectra between the MW-FOPO and the multi-wavelength Erbium-doped fiber laser is also presented.
In this paper, a new calculating method for the characteristic impedance (Zc) of transmission lines with perturbation and periodic modified ground structure (MGS), such as defected ground structure (DGS), photonic bandgap (PBG), and substrate integrated artificial dielectric (SIAD), is discussed. The proposed method is based on simple transmission line theories and proper related equations. The previous method to find Zc of transmission lines with MGS or perturbation produces the fluctuating Zc value depending on frequency, while the proposed method results in a constant value without frequency-dependence. As examples, several microstrip lines with DGS, PBG, and SIAD structure are simulated and measured, and their Zc values are calculated from S-parameters by the previous and proposed methods. It is shown that the Zc obtained by the proposed method is much more reliable than that calculated by the previous method for all examples.
A complete study for the deployment of a wireless sensor network in a forest based on ZigBee is presented in this paper. First, due to the lack of propagation models for peer to peer networks in forests, propagation experiments were carried out to determine the propagation model. This model was then used for planning and deploying an actual wireless sensor network. The performance of the network was compared with the expected theoretical behavior to extract some conclusions that are presented in the paper. Finally, some general conclusions, as an estimation of the minimum number of routers necessary to cover a given area, are extracted from the experiments and presented in the paper.
In this paper, mu and epsilon-near-zero (MENZ) metamaterials are used to convert the waves emitted from an embedded line source to various waveforms. The simulation results show that the converted waveforms are consistent with the exit face shape of the metamaterials. The power distributions in different beams are dependent on the length proportion of the exit faces due to its impedance matching with the surrounding media, which is different from the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials. A numerical verification with the finite element method (FEM) was presented, followed by physical insights into this phenomenon and theoretical analysis. We also propose some potential applications, including high directive emissions, multi-beams emissions.
This work presents a quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO) realized by on-chip trans-directional (TRD) couplers. The TRD coupler is implemented by sections of parallel-coupled lines connected by shunt capacitors periodically. The TRD couplers allow decoupling the DC path between input and output. Thus, it can make connections with active circuits easier, eliminating some off-chip biasing circuits. Since the quadrature signals are generated by 90°hybrid couplers, the oscillator core can be optimized for circuit performance without considering the generation of quadrature signals. A Ka band QVCO fabricated in CMOS 0.18 μm technology was designed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed QVCO structure. The measurement results reveal that the quadrature output signals of QVCO have about -1.52 dBm output powers with less than 1 dB amplitude imbalance and less than 6°phase difference in the frequency range of 31.9 to 32.7 GHz. The best measured phase noise of the QVCO is -110.6 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from the center frequency. The figure-of-merit of the circuit is 187.5 dBc/Hz.
Time Reversal Multiple Signal Classification (TR-MUSIC) method is studied and adapted for the detection and localization of multiple targets behind the wall in this paper. TR-MUSIC does not involve the FDTD solver for the implementation of the backpropagation of the time reversed field and is very computational efficient. The Green's function vectors for the computation of the TR-MUSIC pseudo-spectrum is efficiently evaluated with the saddle point method for a homogeneous wall. By employing the null space of the multistatic response matrix, simultaneous localization of multiple targets behind the wall can be achieved by TR-MUSIC method. Numerical results are presented to show the effectiveness of through-the-wall imaging (TWI) with TR-MUSIC method.
A power divider with ultra-wideband (UWB) performance has been designed. The quarter-wave transformer in the conventional Wilkinson power divider is replaced by an exponentially tapered microstrip line. Since the tapered line provides a consistent impedance transformation across all frequencies, very low amplitude ripple of 0.2 dB peak-to-peak in the transmission coefficient and superior input return loss better than 15 dB are achieved over an ultra-wide bandwidth. Two additional resistors are added along the tapered line to improve the output return loss and isolation. Simulation performed using CST Microwave Studio and measured results confirm the good performance of the proposed circuit. The return loss and the isolation between the output ports are better than 15 dB across the band 2-10.2 GHz. Standard off-the-shelf resistance values can be selected by optimizing the physical locations to mount the resistors. Better performance can be achieved with more isolation resistors added. Hence, the number of isolation resistors to be used may be selected based on the desired bandwidth and level of isolation and return loss specifications.
A compact ultra-wideband (UWB) bandpass filter (BPF) with dual notch bands is presented using a tri-layer structure. In the design of UWB BPFs, it is desired to have a uniform 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz full-band transmission response. Dual notch bands are generated to filter out the interferences caused by signals transmitted from WLAN and/or WiMAX systems at 5.8 GHz and 3.5 GHz, respectively. The sharp rejection of WiMAX signals is achieved by adding meander open-loop resonators on the middle layer. Another rejection of WLAN signals is introduced by adding a C-shaped resonator on the bottom layer. The proposed filter is not only realized theoretically but also verified by a full-wave electromagnetic simulation. The designed tri-layer UWB BPF with dual notch bands was fabricated by two FR4 printed circuit boards with the permittivity of 4.4 and the thickness of 0.8 mm. The total area is 11 mm×10.5 mm.
In this paper, a high-e±ciency wireless energy transmission via magnetic resonance is implemented by using negative permeability metamaterial structures. The metamaterial structure is consisted of a three-dimensional (3D) periodic array of the unit cell that the capacitively loaded split ring resonators (CLSRRs) are periodically arranged in the cubic dielectric surfaces. This metamaterial structure has the negative permeability property that matches free space, which is used as a magnetic flux guide in order to enhance the efficiency of energy transmission between a source and distant receiving coil. The efficiency of energy transmission is improved as reducing the radiation loss by focusing the magnetic field to a distant receiving coil. The distance able to transport the energy with maintaining the same efficiency has been increased by the same mechanism. The efficiency of energy transmission is approximately 80% at a transmission distance of 1.5 m.
In this paper, we present a new ultra wideband antenna design with band rejection for UWB applications. A CPW-fed circular patch radiates through a circular aperture, which ensures wideband impedance matching and stable omnidirectional pattern over an UWB frequency range, from 3GHz to 10.6 GHz. In order to avoid interference with WLAN applications, at 5.8 GHz, the antenna is slightly modified to reject undesired band. A semi-circular slot ring is etched on the circular patch at the notch frequency, which creates an open circuit and avoids impedance matching and current propagation. A prototype was fabricated and measured, and the obtained experimental results agree with simulations and show an omnidirectional azimuth pattern over the entire bandwidth.
An improved finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is proposed for predicting transient responses of coaxial cables which are placed in an electrically large metallic cabin with arbitrary slots and circular windows on its wall. By integrating nodal analysis, multi-conductor transmission line (MTL) equation and FDTD method, we are able to accurately capture electromagnetic interference (EMI) effects on the cables. Our developed algorithm is verified by calculating frequency-dependent transfer impedance of coaxial cables together with induced currents. Numerical calculations are further performed to show the near-end coupled current responses of braided and tubular cables, respectively, and the effects of incident directions and polarizations of the illuminated electromagnetic pulse are both taken into account.