A periodic millimeter wave leaky-wave antenna (LWA), which has two different types of radiator elements that enable backward to forward radiation, is proposed. The unit-cell of the LWA consists of two quarter-wavelength microstrip lines and two corrugated substrate integrated waveguide (CSIW) cells with S-shaped quarter-wavelength open-circuit stubs. In addition to two parallel edge radiators, a single etched transverse slot with a tilt angle acts as an ancillary radiator, which ensures impedance matching in a large frequency range and achieves the backward to forward scanning. We analyze the proposed design through simulations, characterize a fabricated prototype and find it to have good radiation properties including broad impedance bandwidth. The measurement results show a high peak gain from 11 to 15.8 dBi with a large scanning angle range from -34° to +22° in the K-band operating frequency range.
2. Moon, S., S. Yun, I. Yom, and H. L. Lee, "Phased array shaped-beam satellite antenna with boosted-beam control," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 67, No. 12, 7633-7636, Dec. 2019.
3. Jackson, D. R., C. Caloz, and T. Itoh, "Leaky-wave antennas," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 100, No. 7, 2194-2206, Jul. 2012.
4. Mohsen, M. K., M. S. M. Isa, A. A. M. Isa, M. K. Abdulhameed, M. L. Attiah, and A. M. Dinar, "Enhancement bandwidth of half width-microstrip leaky wave antenna using circular slots," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 94, 59-74, 2019.
5. Hyneman, R. F., "Closely-spaced transverse slots in rectangular waveguide," IRE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 7, No. 4, 03-42, Oct. 1959.
6. Liu, J., D. R. Jackson, and Y. Long, "Modal analysis of dielectric-filled rectangular waveguide with transverse slots," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 59, No. 9, 3194-3203, Sep. 2011.
7. Liu, J., D. R. Jackson, and Y. Long, "Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) leaky-wave antenna with transverse slots," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 60, No. 1, 20-29, Jan. 2012.
8. Geng, Y., J. Wang, Z. Li, Y. Li, M. Chen, and Z. Zhang, "A leaky-wave antenna array with beam-formed radiation pattern for application in a confined space," IEEE Access, Vol. 7, 86367-86373, 2019.
9. Javanbakht, N., M. S. Majedi, and A. R. Attari, "Periodic leaky-wave antenna with transverse slots based on substrate integrated waveguide," 2016 24th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE), 608-612, Shiraz, Iran, May 2016.
10. McMillan, L. O., N. V. Shuley, and P. W. Davis, "Leaky fields on microstrip," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 17, 323-337, 1997.
11. Lee, H., J. H. Choi, C.-T. M. Wu, and T. Itoh, "A compact single radiator crlh-inspired circularly polarized leaky-wave antenna based on substrate-integrated waveguide," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 63, No. 10, 4566-4572, Oct. 2015.
12. Eccleston, K. W., "Mode analysis of the corrugated substrate integrated waveguide," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn., Vol. 60, No. 10, 3004-3012, Oct. 2012.
13. Liu, C., Z. Li, and J. Wang, "A new kind of circularly polarized leaky-wave antenna based on corrugated substrate integrated waveguide," Proc. IEEE 5th Int. Symp. Microw., Antenna, Propag. EMC Technol. Wireless Commun. (MAPE), 383-387, Oct. 2013.
14. Lin, Y., Y. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Zhang, E. Forsberg, and S. He, "A simple high-gain millimeter-wave leaky-wave slot antenna based on a bent corrugated SIW," IEEE Access, Vol. 8, 91999-92006, 2020.
15. Chen, K., Y. H. Zhang, S. Y. He, H. T. Chen, and G. Q. Zhu, "An electronically controlled leaky-wave antenna based on corrugated SIW structure with fixed-frequency beam scanning," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 18, No. 3, 551-555, Mar. 2019.
16. Caloz, C. and T. Itoh, Electromagnetic Metamaterials: Transmission Line Theory and Microwave Applications, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2005.
17. Sarkar, A., M. Adhikary, A. Sharma, A. Biswas, M. J. Akhtar, and Z. Hu, "Composite right/left-handed based compact and high gain leaky-wave antenna using complementary spiral resonator on HMSIW for Ku band applications," IET Microw. Antennas Propag., Vol. 12, No. 8, 1310-1315, 2018.
18. Sabahi, M. M., A. A. Heidari, and M. Movahhedi, "A compact CRLH circularly polarized leaky-wave antenna based on substrate-integrated waveguide," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 66, No. 9, 4407-4414, Sep. 2018.
19. Ansoft Corp., Left-handed Metamaterial Design Guide, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 2007.
20. Agrawal, R., P. Belwal, M. Singh, and S. C. Gupta, "Continuous beam scanning in substrate integrated waveguide leaky wave antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 62, 19-28, 2017.
21. Liu, J., W. Zhou, and Y. L. Long, "A simple technique for open-stopband suppression in periodic leaky-wave antennas using two nonidentical elements per unit cell," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 18, No. 2, 353-357, Jun. 2019.