Vol. 166

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2019-11-20

Impact of Permittivity Patterns on Fully Polarimetric Brightness Temperature Signatures at L-Band

By Moritz Link, Carsten Montzka, Thomas Jagdhuber, Sten S. Sobjærg, Stephan Dill, Markus Peichl, Thomas Meyer, and François Jonard
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 166, 75-93, 2019
doi:10.2528/PIER19080204

Abstract

This study investigates the sensitivity of L-band (1.41 GHz) polarimetric brightness temperature signatures to oriented permittivity patterns, which can occur for example in the case of row and interrow soil moisture differences in agricultural fields. A field experiment and model simulations are conducted to verify the effects of such patterns on all four Stokes parameters. We find that for an artificial target resembling idealized model conditions, permittivity patterns lead to systematic brightness temperature modulations in dependency of the azimuthal look angle. For the specific field setup, modulations reach amplitudes of ~4 K and mostly affect h-polarized brightness temperatures as well as the first, second and third Stokes parameters. Simulations of soil moisture patterns under idealized model conditions indicate even higher amplitudes (up to 60 K for extreme cases). However, the effects occur only for permittivity layer widths of up to 8 cm (given the observing wavelength of 21 cm), which is lower than the row and interrow widths typically observed in agricultural settings. For this reason, and due to the idealized model geometry investigated here, future studies are needed to transfer the findings of this study to potential applications such as the sensing of oriented soil moisture patterns. Particular interest might lie in radiometry and reflectometry in lower frequency ranges such as P-band, where according to the threshold established here (8/21 wavelengths), permittivity layer widths of up to ~45 cm could be observed.

Citation


Moritz Link, Carsten Montzka, Thomas Jagdhuber, Sten S. Sobjærg, Stephan Dill, Markus Peichl, Thomas Meyer, and François Jonard, "Impact of Permittivity Patterns on Fully Polarimetric Brightness Temperature Signatures at L-Band," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 166, 75-93, 2019.
doi:10.2528/PIER19080204
http://jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=19080204

References


    1. Njoku, E. G. and D. Entekhabi, "Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture," Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 184, No. 1-2, 101-129, 1996.

    2. Babaeian, E., M. Sadeghi, S. B. Jones, C. Montzka, H. Vereecken, and M. Tuller, "Ground, proximal, and satellite remote sensing of soil moisture," Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 57, No. 2, 530-616, 2019.

    3. Kerr, Y. H., et al., "The SMOS mission: New tool for monitoring key elements ofthe global water cycle," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 98, No. 5, 666-687, 2010.

    4. Entekhabi, D., et al., "The soil moisture active passive (SMAP) mission," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 98, No. 5, 704-716, 2010.

    5. Font, J., A. Camps, A. Borges, M. Martn-Neira, J. Boutin, N. Reul, Y. H. Kerr, A. Hahne, and S. Mecklenburg, "SMOS: The challenging sea surface salinity measurement from space," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 98, No. 5, 649-665, 2009.

    6. Roy, A., A. Royer, C. Derksen, L. Brucker, A. Langlois, A. Mialon, and Y. H. Kerr, "Evaluation of spaceborne L-band radiometer measurements for terrestrial freeze/thaw retrievals in Canada," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, Vol. 8, No. 9, 4442-4459, 2015.

    7. Mills, P. and G. Heygster, "Retrieving ice concentration from SMOS," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 8, No. 2, 283-287, 2010.

    8. Rautiainen, K., et al., "SMOS prototype algorithm for detecting autumn soil freezing," Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 180, 346-360, 2016.

    9. Kaleschke, L., X. Tian-Kunze, N. Maa, M. Makynen, and M. Drusch, "Sea ice thickness retrieval from SMOS brightness temperatures during the Arctic freeze-up period," Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 39, No. 5, 2012.

    10. Randa, J., et al., "Recommended terminology for microwave radiometry,", NIST Technical Note TN1551, Vol. 27, 2008.

    11. Tsang, L., "Polarimetic passive microwave remote sensing of random discrete scatterers and rough surfaces," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 5, No. 1, 41-57, 1991.

    12. Tsang, L., "Thermal emission of nonspherical particles," Radio Science, Vol. 19, No. 4, 966-974, 1984.

    13. Yueh, S. H., W. J. Wilson, S. J. Dinardo, and F. K. Li, "Polarimetric microwave brightness signatures of ocean wind directions," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 37, No. 2, 949-959, 1999.

    14. Veysoglu, M. E., H. Yueh, R. Shin, and J. Kong, "Polarimetric passive remote sensing of periodic surfaces," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 5, No. 3, 267-280, 1991.

    15. Sobjaerg, S. and N. Skou, "Polarimetric signatures from a crop covered land surface measured by an L-band polarimetric radiometer," 2003 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IGARSS 2003, Proceedings (IEEE Cat. No. 03CH37477), Vol. 4, 2626-2628, IEEE, 2003.

    16. Hornbuckle, B. K., A. W. England, R. D. De Roo, M. A. Fischman, and D. L. Boprie, "Vegetation canopy anisotropy at 1.4 GHz," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 41, No. 10, 2211-2223, 2003.

    17. O'Neill, P., T. Jackson, B. Blanchard, J. Wang, and W. Gould, "Effects of corn stalk orientation and water content on passive microwave sensing of soil moisture," Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 16, No. 1, 55-67, 1984.

    18. Brunfeldt, D. R. and F. T. Ulaby, "Microwave emission from row crops," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 24, No. 3, 353-359, 1986.

    19. Colliander, A., S.-B. Kim, S. H. Yueh, M. H. Cosh, T. J. Jackson, and E. G. Njoku, "Azimuthal signature of coincidental brightness temperature and normalized radar cross-section obtained using airborne PALS instrument," PIERS Online, Vol. 6, No. 6, 500-503, 2010.

    20. Narvekar, P. S., T. J. Jackson, R. Bindlish, L. Li, G. Heygster, and P. Gaiser, "Observations of land surface passive polarimetry with the WindSat instrument," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 45, No. 7, 2019-2028, 2007.

    21. Wang, J. R., R. W. Newton, and J. W. Rouse, "Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture: The effect of tilled row structure," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, No. 4, 296-302, 1980.

    22. Promes, P., T. Jackson, and P. O'Neill, "Signi cance of agricultural row structure on the microwave emissivity of soils," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 26, No. 5, 580-589, 1988.

    23. Macelloni, G., P. Pampaloni, S. Paloscia, and R. Ruisi, "Effects of spatial inhomogeneities and microwave emission enhancement in random media: An experimental study," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 34, No. 5, 1084-1089, 1996.

    24. Van Wesenbeeck, I. and R. Kachanoski, "Spatial and temporal distribution of soil water in the tilled layer under a corn crop," Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 52, No. 2, 363-368, 1988.

    25. Zhai, R., R. Kachanoski, and R. Voroney, "Tillage effects on the spatial and temporal variations of soil water," Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 54, No. 1, 186-192, 1990.

    26. Paltineanu, I. and J. Starr, "Preferential water ow through corn canopy and soil water dynamics across rows," Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 64, No. 1, 44-54, 2000.

    27. Starr, J. L. and D. J. Timlin, "Using high-resolution soil moisture data to assess soil water dynamics in the vadose zone," Vadose Zone Journal, Vol. 3, No. 3, 926-935, 2004.

    28. Martello, M., N. Ferro, L. Bortolini, and F. Morari, "Effect of incident rainfall redistribution by maize canopy on soil moisture at the crop row scale," Water, Vol. 7, No. 5, 2254-2271, 2015.

    29. Canone, D., M. Previati, and S. Ferraris, "Evaluation of stem ow effects on the spatial distribution of soil moisture using TDR monitoring and an in ltration model," Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Vol. 143, No. 1, 04016075, 2016.

    30. Timlin, D., Y. Pachepsky, and V. R. Reddy, "Soil water dynamics in row and interrow positions in soybean (Glycine max L.)," Plant and Soil, Vol. 237, No. 1, 25-35, 2001.

    31. Prieksat, M., T. Kaspar, and M. Ankeny, "Positional and temporal changes in ponded in ltration in a corn field," Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 58, No. 1, 181-184, 1994.

    32. Sollner, M., "Vollpolarimetrische Helligkeitstemperatur-Verteilungen von naturlichen und kunstlichen Objekten bei einer Frequenz von 90 GHz,", DLR Research Report 98-19, DLR Library and Information Center, Cologne, ISSN 1434-8454, 1998.

    33. Rytov, S., "Electromagnetic properties of a nely strati ed medium," Soviet Physics JEPT, Vol. 2, 466-475, 1956.

    34. Born, M. and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, Elsevier, 2013.

    35. Lorente-Crespo, M., G. Ballesteros, and C. Mateo-Segura, "All-dielectric broadband microwave polarization conversion based on form birefringence," 2015 9th International Congress on Advanced Electromagnetic Materials in Microwaves and Optics (Metamaterials), 184-186, IEEE, 2015.

    36. Jonard, F., L.Weihermuller, M. Schwank, K. Z. Jadoon, H. Vereecken, and S. Lambot, "Estimation of hydraulic properties of a sandy soil using ground-based active and passive microwave remote sensing," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 53, No. 6, 3095-3109, 2015.

    37. Sobjaerg, S. S., S. S. Kristensen, J. E. Balling, and N. Skou, "The airborne EMIRAD L-band radiometer system," 2013 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium --- IGARSS, 1900-1903, IEEE, 2013.

    38. Jonard, F., S. Bircher, F. Demontoux, L. Weihermuller, S. Razandratsima, J.-P. Wigneron, and H. Vereecken, "Passive L-band microwave remote sensing of organic soil surface layers: A tower- based experiment," Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, No. 2, 304, 2018.

    39. Sobjaerg, S. S., J. E. Balling, and N. Skou, "Performance assessment of an LNA used as active cold load," 2015 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 4742-4745, IEEE, 2015.

    40. Baker-Jarvis, J., E. J. Vanzura, and W. A. Kissick, "Improved technique for determining complex permittivity with the transmission/re ection method," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 38, No. 8, 1096-1103, 1990.

    41. Glass, S. V. and S. L. Zelinka, "Moisture relations and physical properties of wood," Wood Handbook: Wood as an Engineering Material, Centennial ed., Chapter 4, Vol. 190, 4-1, General technical report FPL; GTR-190, Madison, WI: US Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, 2010.

    42. Ahmet, K., G. Dai, R. Tomlin, P. Kaczmar, and S. Riddiough, "The equilibrium moisture content of common UK species at three conditions of temperature and relative humidity," Forest Products Journal, Vol. 50, No. 6, 2000.

    43. Raza ndratsima, S., Z. M. Sbartai, and F. Demontoux, "Permittivity measurement of wood material over a wide range of moisture content," Wood Science and Technology, Vol. 51, No. 6, 1421-1431, 2017.

    44. Mai, T. C., S. Raza ndratsima, Z. M. Sbartai, F. Demontoux, and F. Bos, "Non-destructive evaluation of moisture content of wood material at GPR frequency," Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 77, 213-217, 2015.

    45. Sahin, H. and N. Ay, "Dielectric properties of hardwood species at microwave frequencies," Journal of Wood Science, Vol. 50, No. 4, 375-380, 2004.

    46. Cox, W. J. and D. J. Cherney, "Row spacing, plant density, and nitrogen effects on corn silage," Agronomy Journal, Vol. 93, No. 3, 597-602, 2001.

    47. Zhou, X., G. Yang, S. Sun, and Y. Chen, "Plant and row spacing effects on soil water and yield of rainfed summer soybean in the northern China," Plant, Soil and Environment, Vol. 56, No. 1, 1-7, 2012.

    48. Frederick, J. R., P. J. Bauer, W. J. Busscher, and G. S. McCutcheon, "Tillage management for doublecropped soybean grown in narrow and wide row width culture," Crop Science, Vol. 38, No. 3, 755-762, 1998.

    49. Pedersen, P. and J. G. Lauer, "Corn and soybean response to rotation sequence, row spacing, and tillage system," Agronomy Journal, Vol. 95, No. 4, 965-971, 2003.

    50. Wigneron, J.-P., L. Laguerre, and Y. H. Kerr, "A simple parameterization of the L-band microwave emission from rough agricultural soils," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 39, No. 8, 1697-1707, 2001.

    51. Mironov, V. L., L. G. Kosolapova, and S. V. Fomin, "Physically and mineralogically based spectroscopic dielectric model for moist soils," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 47, No. 7, 2059-2070, 2009.

    52. Ye, N., X. Wu, J. Walker, N. Boopathi, T. J. Jackson, Y. Kerr, E. Kim, A. McGrath, I.-Y. Yeo, and M. Moghaddam, "Towards multi-frequency soil moisture retrieval using P- and L-band passive microwave sensing technology," IGARSS 2018 --- 2018 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 3707-3710, IEEE, 2018.

    53. Boopathi, N., N. Ye, X. Wu, J. P. Walker, Y. Rao, T. J. Jackson, Y. Kerr, E. Kim, A. McGrath, and I.-Y. Yeo, "Towards soil moisture retrieval using tower-based p-band radiometer observations," IGARSS 2018 | 2018 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1407-1410, IEEE, 2018.

    54. Yueh, S. H., X. Xu, R. Shah, S. Margulis, and K. Elder, "P-band signals of opportunity for remote sensing of root zone soil moisture," IGARSS 2018 | 2018 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1403-1406, IEEE, 2018.

    55. Knuble, J., J. Piepmeier, M. Deshpande, C. Du Toit, J. Garrison, Y.-C. Lin, G. Stienne, S. Katzberg, and G. Alikakos, "Airborne P-band Signal of Opportunity (SoOP) demonstrator instrument; status update," 2016 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 5638-5641, IEEE, 2016.

    56. Yueh, S., R. Shah, X. Xu, K. Elder, and B. Starr, "Experimental demonstration of soil moisture remote sensing using P-band satellite signals of opportunity," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 1-5, IEEE, 2019.