The design and evaluation of an active three dimensional (3D) millimeter wave imaging system for personnel security screening is presented in this work. The system is able to produce a highresolution 3D reconstruction of the whole human body surface and reveal concealed objects under clothing. Innovative multistatic millimeter wave radar designs and algorithms, which have been previously validated, are combined to significantly improve the previous reconstruction results. In addition, the system makes use of a reduced amount of information, thus simplifying portal design. Representative simulation results showing good performance of the proposed system are provided and supported by sample measurements.
2. Martinez-Lorenzo, , J. A., , C. M. Rappaport, and F. Quivira, "Physical limitations on detecting tunnels using underground-focusing spotlight synthetic aperture radar," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 49, No. 1, 65-70, 2011.
3. Sheen, , D. M., , D. L. McMakin, and T. E. Hall, "Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 49, No. 9, 1581-1592, 2001.
4. Martinez-Lorenzo, , J. A., F. Quivira, and C. M. Rappaport, "SAR imaging of suicide bombers wearing concealed explosive threats," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 125, 255-272, 2012.
5. Angell, , A. and C. Rappaport, "Computational modelling analysis of radar scattering by clothing covered arrays of metallic body-worn explosive devices," Progress In Electromagnetics Research,, Vol. 76, 285-298, 2007.
6. Demirci, , S., H. Cetinkaya, E. Yigit, C. Ozdemir, and A. A. Vertiy, "A study on millimeter-wave imaging of concealed objects: Application using back-projection algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 128, 457-477, 2012.
7. Cooper, , K. B., , R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, B. Thomas, G. Chattopadhyay, and P. H. Siegel, "THz imaging radar for stando® personnel screening," IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology , Vol. 1, No. 1, 169-182, 2011.
8. Friederich, , F., , W. von Spiegel, M. Bauer, F. Meng, M. Thomson, B. Lisauskas, B. Hils, V. Krozer, A. Keil, T. Lfer, R. Henneberger, A. Huhn, and G. S, "THz active imaging systems with real-time capabilities," IEEE Transactions Terahertz Science and Technology,, Vol. 1, No. 1, 183-200, 2011.
9. Eilbert, , R. F., S. Shi, and , "Improved imaging for X-ray inspection systems," IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine,, Vol. 20, No. 3, 23-28, 2005.
10. Lopez-Sanchez, , J. and J. Fortuny-Guasch, "3-D radar imaging using range migration techniques," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 48, No. 5, 728-737, 2000.
11. Martinez-Lorenzo, , J. A., B. Gonzalez-Valdes, C. M. Rappaport, J. G. Meana, and A. G. Pino, "Reconstructing distortions on reflector antennas with the iterative-field-matrix method using near-field observation data ," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation,, Vol. 59, No. 6, 2434-2437, 2011.
12. Lin, C. Y., Y. W. Kiang, and , "Inverse scattering for conductors by the equivalent source method," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 44, No. 3, 310-316, 1996.
13. Pastorino, M., A. Massa, and S. Caorsi, "A microwave inverse scattering technique for image reconstruction based on a genetic algorithm," IEEE Trans. Instr. and Meas., Vol. 49, No. 3, 573-578, 2000.
14. Alvarez, , Y., , B. A. Casas, C. Garcia, and F. Las-Heras, "Geometry reconstruction of metallic bodies using the sources reconstruction method," IEEE Ant. Wireless Prop. Letters, Vol. 9, 1197-1200, 2009.
15. Chew, , W. C., T. J. Cui, and J. M. Song, "A FAFFA-MLFMA algorithm for electromagnetic scattering," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 50, No. 11, 1640-1649, 2002.
16. Alvarez, Y., , J. A. Martinez, F. Las-Heras, and C. M. Rappaport, "An inverse fast multipole method for geometry reconstruction using scattered field information," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 7, 3351-3360, 2012.
17. Alvarez, , Y., , B. Gonzalez-Valdes, J. A. Martinez, F. Las-Heras and C. M. Rappaport, "3D whole body imaging for detecting explosive-related threats," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation , Vol. 60, No. 9, 4453-4458, 2012.
18. Alvarez, , Y., , B. Gonzalez, J. A. Martinez, F. Las-Heras, and C. Rappaport, "An improved SAR based technique for accurate profile reconstruction," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, No. 99, 2012.
19. Rappaport, , C. and B. Gonzalez-Valdes, "The blade beam reflector antenna for stacked nearfield millimeter-wave imaging," IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation, 1-2, 2012.