A reconfigurable beam forming antenna prototype using a spiral feed line is proposed in this paper. The presented antenna is integrated with PIN diode switches at a specific location of spiral feed line. It is discovered that the beam steering ability is greatly influenced by the spiral arm feed network. Four PIN diode switches have been incorporated at four different arms of spiral feed line to realize a beam forming ability. The intelligence behaviour of this antenna is conferred when the switches are connected to programmable intelligent computer (PIC) microcontroller. Certain configurations of PIC allow the antenna's radiation patterns to be adaptively changed within 0.01 ms. Therefore, the proposed antenna is capable of electronically forming the beam up to four different angles of +176°, +10°, -1° and -12°. This antenna is small in size with 100 mm by 100 mm of substrate dimension. In this research, the site field antenna performance relying on the received signal strength (RSS) testing is tested intensively in Universiti Malaysia Perlis with varied distant points of line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation. With good simulation and measurement results, this antenna could be a promising candidate to be installed in applications such as a smart antenna system, cognitive radio, WiMAX and long term evolution (LTE).
2. Kang, , W., , K. H. Ko, and K. Kim, "A compact beam recon¯gurable antenna for symmetric beam switching," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 129, 1-16, 2012.
3. Peng, , H.-L., , W.-Y. Yin, J.-F. Mao, D. Huo, X. Hang, and L. Zhou, "A compact dual-polarized broadband antenna with hybrid beam-forming capabilities," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 118, 253-271, 2011.
4. Liu, , J., , W.-Y. Yin, and S. He, , "A new defected ground structure and its application for miniaturized switchable antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 107, 115-128, 2010.
5. Chen, , J.-X., , J. Shi, Z.-H. Bao, and Q. Xue, "Tunable and switchable bandpass filters using slot-line resonators," Progress In Electromagnetics Research , Vol. 111, 25-41, 2011.
Wounchoum, P., D. Worasawate, C. Phongcharoenpanich, and M. Krairiksh, "A switched-beam antenna using circumferential-slots on a concentric sectoral cylindrical cavity excited by coupling slots," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 120, 127-141, 2011.
7. Venneri, , F., , S. Costanzo, and G. Di Massa, "Transmission line analysis of aperture-coupled reflect arrays," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 4, 1-12, 2008.
8. Li, , G., , S. Yang, Y. Chen, and Z.-P. Nie, "A novel electronic beam steering technique in time modulated antenna array," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 97, 391-405, 2009.
9. Jung, Y.-B., , A. V. Shishlov, and S.-O. Park, "Cassegrain antenna with hybrid beam steering scheme for mobile satellite communications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation,, Vol. 57, No. 5, 2009.
10. Ouyang, , J., , F. Yang, S. W. Yang, Z. P. Nie, and Z. Q. Zhao, "A novel radiation pattern and frequency reconfigurable microstrip antenna on a thin substrate for wide-band and wide-angle scanning application," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters,, Vol. 4, 167-172, 2008.
11. Sanada, , A. and D. Taema, "A Ka-band low-profile beam steering slot antenna using a CRLH substrate integrated waveguide," European Conference in Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2009, 611-614, 2009.
12. Shynu Nair, , S. V. , M. J. Ammann, and , "Reconfigurable antenna with elevation and azimuth beam switching," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 9, 367-370, 2010.
13. Fayad, H. and P. Record, "Multi-feed dielectric resonator antenna with reconfigurable radiation pattern," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 76, 341-356, 2007.
14. Mofolo, M., A. Lysko, and W. Clarke, "A method of electronic beam steering for circular switched parasitic dipole arrays," Southern Africa Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference, SATNAC 2010, , 6, 2010.
15. Monti, , G., , L. Corchia, and L. Tarricone, "Patch antenna with reconfiguration polarization," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C , Vol. 9, 13-23, 2009.
16. Maloney, , J. C., , M. P. Kesler, L. M. Lust, L. N. Pringle, T. L. Fountain, and P. H. harms, "Switched fragmented aperture antennas," Proc. IEEE Antennas Propagat. Soc. Int. Symp., Vol. 1, 310-313, 2000.
17. Jamlos, , M. F., , T. A. Rahman, M. R. Kamarudin, P. Saad, O. A. Aziz, and M. A. Shamsudin, "Adaptive beam steering of RLSA antenna with RFID technology," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 108, 65-80, 2010.
18. Jusoh, , M., , M. F. Jamlos, M. R. Kamarudin, F. Malek, M. A. Romli, Z. A. Ahmad, M. H. Mat, and M. S. Zulkiflie, "A recon¯gurable ultra-wideband (UWB) compact tree-design antenna system," Progress In Electromagnetic and Research C, Vol. 30, 131-145, 2012.
19. Jamlos, , M. F., , O. A. Aziz, T. A. Rahman, M. R. Kamarudin, P. Saad, M. T. Ali, and M. N. Md Tan, "A reconfigurable radial line slot array (RLSA) antenna for beam shape and broadside application," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 24, No. 8--9, 1171-1182, 2010.
20. Ali, , M. T., , M. N. Md Tan, T. A. Rahman, M. R. Kamarudin, M. F. B. Jamlos, and R. Sauleau, "A novel of reconfigurable planar antenna array (RPAA) with beam steering control," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 20, 125-146, 2010.
21. Emerson&Cuming, "Theory and application of RF/microwave absorbers,".
22. Iqbal, M. N., M. F. B. A. Malek, S. H. Ronald, M. S. Bin Mezan, K. M. Juni, and R. Chat, "A study of the EMC performance of a graded-impedance, microwave, risk-husk absorber," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 131, 19-44, 2012.
23. Wee, , F. H., M. F. B. A. Malek, S. Sreekantan, A. U. Al-Amani, F. Ghani, and K. Y. You, "Investigation of the characteristics of barium strontium titanate (BST) dielectric resonator ceramic loaded on array antennas," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 121, 181-213, 2011.
24. Hashim, A. M., "Development of microstrip patch array antenna wireless local area network (WLAN)," ETRI Journal, Vol. 35, No. 5, 2010.
25. Zubir, F., , M. K. A. Rahim, O. B. Ayop, and H. A. Majid, "Design and analysis of microstrip reflect array antenna with Minkowski shape radiating element," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 24, 317-331, 2010.
26. Tze-Meng, O., K. G. Tan, and A. W. Reza, "A dual-band omni directional microstrip antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 106, 363-376, 2010.
27. Mazinani , S. M., H. R. Hassani, and , "A novel omnidirectional broadband planar monopole antenna with various loading plate shapes," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 97, 241-257, 2009.
28. Constantine, , B. A., , Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design,, 3rd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2005.