The relationship between specific absorption rate (SAR) and antenna gain inside the head due to the metal-frame spectacles was investigated. The radio frequency (RF) energy source considered is the smartphone used in the frontal face. A computer simulation using CST Microwave Studio 2012 was used for the investigation. Two sets of dipole antennas, operated at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz for GSM applications, were used as representative radiation sources from a mobile phone. Parametric studies were conducted to determine the optimum length of the metal rod, and the length was used to study the possibility of RF irradiation of the metal spectacles model. Then, the spectacles model was used as an analysis tool to study the interaction between gain and SAR in the head. The radiation pattern was plotted to identify the causes of the interactions. The gain decreased when the energy source was very close to the spectacles, and SAR increased enormously.
2. Whittow, W. G. and R. M. Edwards, "A study of changes to specific absorption rates in the human eye close to perfectly conducting spectacles within the radio frequency range 1.5 to 3.0 GHz," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 52, No. 12, 3207-3212, Dec. 2004.
3. Stergiou, K., C. Panagamuwa, W. Whittow, and R. Edwards, "Effects of metallic semi-rimmed spectacles on SAR in the head from a 900MHz frontal dipole source," 2009 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), 721-724, Nov. 16-17, 2009.
4. Whittow, W. G., R. M. Edwards, C. J. Panagamuwa, and J. C. Vardaxoglou, "Effect of tongue jewelery and orthodontist metallic braces on the SAR due to mobile phones in different anatomical human head models including children," 2008 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), 293-296, Mar. 17-18, 2008.
5. Bernardi, P., M. Cavagnaro, S. Pisa, and E. Piuzzi, "SAR distribution and temperature increase in an anatomical model of the human eye exposed to the field radiated by the user antenna in a wireless LAN," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 46, No. 12, 2074-2082, Dec. 1998.
6. Mat, M. H., M. F. B. A. Malek, S. I. Syed Hassan, M. S. Zulkefli, and S. H. Ronald, "Correlation analysis on the specific absorption rate (SAR) between metallic spectacle and pins exposed from radiation sources," PIERS Proceedings, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Mar. 27-30, 2012.
7. Dimbylow, P. J. and S. M. Mann, "SAR calculations in an anatomically realistic model of the head for mobile communication transceivers at 900-MHz and 1.8-GHz," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 39, No. 10, 1537-1553, 1994.
8. Lopez-Furelos, A., M. D. M. Mi~nana-Maiques, J. M. Leiro-Vidal, J. A. Rodriguez-Gonzalez, F. J. Ares-Pena, and E. Lopez-Martin, "An experimental multi-frequency system for studying dosimetry and acute e®ects on cell and nuclear morphology in rat tissues," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 129, 541-558, 2012.
9. Cooper, J. and V. Hombach, "The specific absorption rate in a spherical head model from dipole with metallic walls nearby," IEEE Trans. Electromagnet. Compat., Vol. 40, No. 4, 377-382, Nov. 1998.
10. Bernardi, P., M. Cavagnaro, and S. Pisa, "Evaluation of the SAR distribution in the human head for cellular phones used in a partially closed environment," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., Vol. 38, No. 3, 357-366, Aug. 1996.
11. Panagamuwa, C. J., W. G. Whittow, R. M. Edwards, and J. C. Vardaxoglou, "A study of the effects of metallic pins on SAR using a specific anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) head phantom," 2007 European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 1-6, Nov. 11-16,2007.
12. Fung, L. C., S. W. Leung, and K. H. Chan, "An investigation of the SAR reduction methods in mobile phone applications," 2002 IEEE International Symposium on EMC, Vol. 2, 656-660, Aug. 2002.
13. Mahmoud, K. R., M. El-Adawy, S. M. M. Ibrahem, R. Bansal, and S. H. Zainud-Deen, "Investigating the interaction between a human head and a smart handset for 4 g mobile communication systems," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 2, 169-188, 2008.
14. Nikita, K. S.， M. Cavagnaro, P. Bernardi, N. K. Uzunoglu, S. Pisa, E. Piuzzi, J. N. Sahalos, G. I. Krikelas, J. A. Vaul, P. S. Excell, G. Cerri, S. Chiarandini, R. De Leo, and P. Russo, "A study of uncertainties in modeling antenna performance and power absorption in the head of a cellular phone user," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 48, No. 12, 2676-2685, Dec. 2000.
15. Jung, M. and B. Lee, "SAR reduction for mobile phones based on analysis of EM absorbing material characteristics," 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2, 1017-1020, Jun. 2003.
16. Manapati, M. B. and R. S. Kshetrimayum, "SAR reduction in human head from mobile phone radiation using single negative metamaterials," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 23, No. 10, 1385-1395, 2009.
17. Chou, H.-H., H.-T. Hsu, H.-T. Chou, K.-H. Liu, and F.-Y. Kuo, "Reduction of peak SAR in human head for handset applications with resistive sheets (R-CARDS)," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 94, 281-296, 2009.
18. Zhang, M. and A. Alden, "Calculation of whole-body SAR from a 00MHz dipole antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 119, 133-153, 2011.
19. Mohsin, S. A., "Concentration of the specific absorption rate around deep brain stimulation electrodes during MRI," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 121, 469-484, 2011.
20. Cole, K. S. and R. H. Cole, "Dispersion and absorption in dielectrics: I. Alternating current characteristics," Journal of Chemical Physics, 341-351, Apr. 1941.
21. Harrington, R. F., Field Computation by Moment Methods, Wiley-Interscience and IEEE Press Series on Electromagnetic Wave Theory, 1993.
22. Sullivan, D. M., Electromagnetic Simulation Using the FDTD Method, IEEE Press Series on RF and Microwave Technology, 2000.
23. Lancellotti, V., B. P. de Hon, and A. G. Tijhuis, "Scattering from large 3-D piecewise homogeneous bodies through linear embedding via Green's operators and Arnoldi basis functions," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 103, 305-322, 2010.
24. Mohsin, S. A., "A simple EM model for determining the scattered magnetic resonance radiofrequency field of an implanted medical device," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 14, 1-14, 2010.
25. Amjad, A., R. Kamondetdacha, A. V. Kildishev, S. M. Park, and J. A. Nyenhuis, "Power deposition inside a phantom for testing of MRI heating," IEEE Trans. Magn., Vol. 41, 4185-4187, 2005.
26. Mohsin, S. A., N. M. Sheikh, and U. Saeed, "MRI induced heating of deep brain stimulation leads: Effect of the air-tissue interface," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 83, 81-91, 2008.
27. , , , CST User Interface for Hugo Human Body Model, [online] available: http://www.cst.com/Content/Applications/Article/HUGO +Human+Body+Model.
28. , , , Data sheet, Federal Communication Commission, [online], www.fcc.gov/fcc-bin/dielec.sh-09/2002.
29. Mohsin, S. A., J. Nyenhuis, and R. Masood, "Interaction of medical implants with the MRI electromagnetic fields," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 13, 195-202, 2010.
30. , , , CST Microwave Studio in CST Studio Suite 2011 User's Manual, www.cst.com.
31. Mat, M. H., M. F. Malek., S. H. Ronald, and M. S. Zulkefli, "Effects of the metallic spectacles with braces added on specific absorption rate (SAR) exposed to frontal radiation sources," 2011 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), 1-4, Nov. 14-15, 2011.
32. Mat, M. H., M. F. B. A. Malek, A. Omar, M. S. Zulkefli, and S. H. Ronald, "Analysis of the correlation between antenna gain and SAR levels inside the human head model at 900 MHz," 2012 Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (APEMC), 513-516, May 21-24, 2012.
33. Mat, M. H., F. Malek, S. H. Ronald, and M. S. Zulkefli, "A comparative study of simple geometrical head phantoms on speci¯c absorption rates for simulations and measurements at 900 MHz," 2012 International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (ICoBE), 330-334, Feb. 27-28, 2012.
34. Catarinucci, L. and L. Tarricone, "New algorithms for the specific absorption rate numerical evaluation based on spherical averaging volumes," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 44, 427-445, 2012.
35. Gangwar, R. K., S. P. Singh, and D. Kumar, "SAR distribution in a bio-medium in close proximity with rectangular dielectric resonator antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 31, 157-173, 2011.
36. Ikeuchi, R., K. H. Chan, and A. Hirata, "SAR and radiation characteristics of a dipole antenna above different finite EBG substrates in the presence of a realistic head model in the 3.5 GHz band," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 44, 53-70, 2012.
37. Montaser, A. M., K. R. Mahmoud, and H. A. Elmikati, "An interaction study between pifas handset antenna and a human hand-head in personal communications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 37, 21-42, 2012.
38. Andujar, A., J. Anguera, C. Picher, and C. Puente, "Human head interaction over ground plane booster antenna technology: Functional and biological analysis," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 41, 153-185, 2012.
39. Otin, R., "Numerical study of the thermal effects induced by a RFID antenna in vials of blood plasma," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 22, 129-138, 2011.
40. Faruque, M. R. I., M. T. Islam, and N. Misran, "Design analysis of new metamaterial for EM absorption reduction," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 124, 119-135, 2012.
41. Yanase, K. and A. Hirata, "Effective resistance of grounded humans for whole-body averaged SAR estimation at resonance frequencie," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 35, 15-27, 2011.
42. Wang, J., Z. Zhao, J. Song, X. Zhu, Z.-P. Nie, and Q. H. Liu, "Reconstruction of microwave absorption properties in heterogeneous tissue for microwave-induced thermo-acoustic tomography," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 130, 225-240, 2012.
43. Mat, M. H., M. F. Abd Malek, M. S. Zulkefli, and H. R. Suzanna, "Preliminary study of electromagnetic energy absorption in the head due to the exposure of radio frequency at 900 MHz," 2012 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Informatics (ISCI), 228-231, Mar. 18-20, 2012.
44. AlShehri, S. A., S. Khatun, A. B. Jantan, R. S. A. Raja Abdullah, R. Mahmood, and Z. Awang, "Experimental breast tumor detection using nn-based UWB imaging," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 111, 447-465, 2011.
45. Otin, R. and H. Gromat, "Specific absorption rate computations with a nodal-based finite element formulation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 128, 399-418, 2012.
46. Golestanirad, L., A. P. Izquierdo, S. J. Graham, J. R. Mosig, and C. Pollo, "Effect of realistic modeling of deep brain stimulation on the prediction of volume of activated tissue," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 126, 1-16, 2012.
47. Islam, M. T., H. Z. Abidin, M. R. I. Faruque, and N. Misran, "Analysis of materials effects on radio frequency electromagnetic fields in human head," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 128, 121-136, 2012.
48. Ibrani, M., L. Ahma, E. Hamiti, and J. Haxhibeqiri, "Derivation of electromagnetic properties of child biological tissues at radio frequencies," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 25, 87-100, 2011.