Vol. 133

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Optical Fiber Extrinsic Micro-Cavity Scanning Microscopy

By Andrea Di Donato, Antonio Morini, and Marco Farina
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 133, 347-366, 2013


An extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity in optical fiber is used to achieve surface imaging at infrared wavelengths. The micro-cavity is realized by approaching a single mode fiber optic with a numerical aperture NA to a sample and it is fed by a low-coherence source. The measurement of the reflected optical intensity provides a map of the sample reflectivity, whereas from the analysis of the reflected spectrum in the time/spatial domain, we disentangle the topography and contrast phase information, in the limit of nearly homogeneous sample with complex permittivity having Im(ε) << Real(ε). The transverse resolution is not defined by the numerical aperture NA of the fiber and consequently by the conventional Rayleigh limit (about 0.6λ/NA), but it is a function of the transverse field behavior of the electromagnetic field inside the micro-cavity. Differently, the resolution in the normal direction is limited mainly by the source bandwidth and demodulation algorithm. The system shows a compact and simple architecture. An analytical model for data interpretation is also introduced.


Andrea Di Donato, Antonio Morini, and Marco Farina, "Optical Fiber Extrinsic Micro-Cavity Scanning Microscopy," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 133, 347-366, 2013.


    1. Yu, B., et al., "Analysis of fiber Fabry-Pérot interferometric sensors using low-coherence light sources," IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1758-1767, Apr. 2006.

    2. Murphy, K. A., M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, R. O. Claus, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Extrinsic Fabry-Pérot optical fiber sensor, Proc. 8th Opt. Fiber Sens. Conf., 193-196, 1992.

    3. Furstenau, N., M. Schmidt, H. Horack, W. Goetze, and W. Schmidt, "Extrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometer vibration and acoustic systems for airport ground tra±c monitoring," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. --- Optoelectron, Vol. 144, No. 3, 134-144, 1997.

    4. Wang, A., H. Xiao, J. Wang, Z. Wang, W. Zhao, and R. G. May, "Self-calibrated interferometric-intensity-based optical fiber sensors ," IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 19, No. 10, 1495-1501, 2001.

    5. Yao, H.-Y. and T.-H. Chang, "Experimental and theoretical studies of a broadband superluminality in Fabry-Perot interferometer," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 122, 1-13, 2012.

    6. Costa, F. and A. Monorchio, "Design of subwavelength tunable and steerable Fabry-Perot/leaky wave antennas," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 111, 467-481, 2011.

    7. Han, M., Y. Zhang, F. Shen, G. R. Pickrell, and A.Wang, "Signal-processing algorithm for white-light optical fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors," Optics Letters, Vol. 29, No. 15, 1736-1738, Aug. 2004.

    8. Chen, J. H., J. R. Zhao, X. G. Huang, and Z. J. Huang, "Extrinsic fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor for refractive index measurement of optical glass," Applied Optics, Vol. 49, No. 29, 5592-5596, Oct. 2010.

    9. Zhou, X. and Q. Yu, "Wide-range displacement sensor based on fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer for subnanometer measurement," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 11, No. 7, 1602-1606, Jul. 2011.

    10. Zhang, Y., H. Shibru, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, "Miniature fiber-optic multicavity Fabry-Perot interferometric biosensor," Optics Letters, Vol. 30, No. 9, 1021-1023, May 2005.

    11. Wilkinson, P. R. and J. R. Pratt, "Analytical model for low finesse, external cavity, fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers including multiple re°ections and angular misalignment," Applied Optics, Vol. 50, No. 23, 4671-4680, Aug. 2011.

    12. Kilic, O., M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, and O. Solgaard, "Asymmetrical spectral response in fiber Fabry-Pérot interferometers," IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 27, No. 24, 5648-5656, Dec. 2009.

    13. Daniels, D. J., Ground Penetrating Radar, 2nd Ed., IET, London, 2007.

    14. Bouma, B. and G. Tearney, Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography, Marcel Dekker, 2002.

    15. Isikman, S. O., et al., "Lensfree on-chip microscopy and tomography for biomedical applications," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1059-1072, May{Jun. 2012.

    16. Di Donato, A., M. Farina, A. Morini, G. Venanzoni, D. Mencarelli, M. Candeloro, and M. Farina, "Using correlation maps in a wide-band microwave GPR," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 30, 371-387, 2011.

    17. Farina, M., et al., "Disentangling time in a near-field approach to scanning probe microscopy," Nanoscale, Vol. 3, No. 9, 3589-3593, Sep. 2011.

    18. Farina, M., et al., "Algorithm for reduction of noise in ultra-microscopy and application to near-field microwave microscopy," IET Elect. Lett., Vol. 46, No. 1, 50-52, Jan. 2010.

    19. Kaklamani, D. I., "Full-wave analysis of a Fabry-Perot type resonator," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 24, 279-310, 1999.

    20. Poularikas, A., The Transform and Application Handbook, 2nd Ed., CRC Press, 1999.

    21. Lee, D. L., Electromagnetic Principles of Integrated Optics, John Wiley & Sons, 1986.

    22. Ramo, S., J. R. Whinnery, and T. van Duzer, Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics, John Wiley & Sons, 1994.

    23. Di Donato, A., et al., "Stationary mode distribution and sidewall roughness effects in overmoded optical waveguides," IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 28, No. 10, 1510-1520, 2010.

    24. Di Donato, A., L. Scalise, and L. Zappelli, "Noncontact speckle-based velocity sensor," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 53, No. 1, 51-57, 2004.

    25. Andretzky, P., et al., "Optical coherence tomography by `spectral radar,' dynamic range estimation and in vivo measurements of skin," Proc. SPIE 3567, Optical and Imaging Techniques for Biomonitoring IV , Vol. 78, Feb. 1999.