Vol. 129

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2012-07-03

Designing Asian-Sized Hand Model for SAR Determination at GSM900/1800: Simulation Part

By Suzanna Harun Ronald, Mohd Fareq Bin Abd Malek, Syed Idris Syed Hassan, Ee Meng Cheng, Mohd Hafizuddin Mat, Muhammad Solihin Zulkefli, and Siti Fazlina Binti Maharimi
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 129, 439-467, 2012
doi:10.2528/PIER12050304

Abstract

A simple geometrical Asian-hand model with human tissue properties posed at two common talk-mode positions is proposed for comparative study. The newly designed hand is formed by measuring adult female hand at open-hand position before being posed into the presented styles. Four human hand tissues are included; skin, bone, muscle, and tendon, and also three homogeneous set of hands using specific anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) hand phantom dielectric properties. A candy-bar type mobile phone with Planar Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA) is used to radiate dual-band frequency of GSM900/1800 in the vicinity of the SAM head phantom. The mobile phone casing is made out of plastic and only two components were considered: the FR-4 ground plane and PIFA. The specific absorption rate (SAR) averaged over a mass of 10 gram and 1gram is calculated after obtaining the power loss density and electric field value from simulation in CST Studio Suite 2011. The SAR and return loss results of six hand structures, including the SAM hand phantom are compared. The antenna performance with the inclusion of hand does not decrease as much as 1800 MHz in 900 MHz range, but absorbs energy more in the hands for 1800MHz compared to 900 MHz SAR values.

Citation


Suzanna Harun Ronald, Mohd Fareq Bin Abd Malek, Syed Idris Syed Hassan, Ee Meng Cheng, Mohd Hafizuddin Mat, Muhammad Solihin Zulkefli, and Siti Fazlina Binti Maharimi, "Designing Asian-Sized Hand Model for SAR Determination at GSM900/1800: Simulation Part," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 129, 439-467, 2012.
doi:10.2528/PIER12050304
http://jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=12050304

References


    1. Cardis, E., et al., "The INTERPHONE study: Design, epidemio-logical methods, and description of the study population," European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 22, No. 9, 647-664, Sep. 2007.
    doi:10.1007/s10654-007-9152-z

    2. Varsier, N., K. Wake, M. Taki, S. Watanabe, E. Cardis, J. Wiart, and N. Yamaguchi, "Categorization of mobile phones for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies on mobile phone use and brain cancer risk," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 56, No. 10, 2377-2384, 2008.
    doi:10.1109/TMTT.2008.2004256

    3. Takebayashi, T., et al., "Mobile phone use, exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field and brain tumor: A case-control study," British Journal of Cancer, Vol. 98, 652-659, Feb. 2008.
    doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604214

    4. Mohsin, S. A., "Concentration of the specific absorption rate around deep brain stimulation electrodes during MRI," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 121, 469-484, 2011.
    doi:10.2528/PIER11022402

    5. Genc, O, M. Bayrak, and E. Yaldiz, "Analysis of the effects of GSM bands to the electromagnetic pollution in the RF spectrum," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 101, 17-32, 2010.
    doi:10.2528/PIER09111004

    6. Yanase, K. and A. Hirata, "Effective resistance of grounded humans for whole-body averaged SAR estimation at resonance frequencies," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 35, 15-27, 2011.
    doi:10.2528/PIERB11082511

    7. Khodabakhshi, H. and A. Cheldavi, "Numerical analysis of human head interaction with PIFA antennas in cellular mobile communications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 22, 359-377, 2010.
    doi:10.2528/PIERB10051304

    8. Canbay, C., "The essential environmental cause of multiple sclerosis disease," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 101, 375-391, 2010.
    doi:10.2528/PIER09112604

    9. Kusuma, A. H., A.-F. Sheta, I. M. Elshafiey, Z. Siddiqui, M. A. S. Alkanhal, S. Aldosari, S. A. Alshebeili, and S. F. Mahmoud, "A new low SAR antenna structure for wireless handset applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 112, 23-40, 2011.

    10. Lin, M.-S., C.-H. Huang, and C.-N. Chiu, "Use of high-impedance screens for enhancing antenna performance with electromagnetic compatibility," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 116, 137-157, 2011.

    11. Chiu, C.-W., C.-H. Chang, and Y.-J. Chi, "Multiband folded loop antenna for smart phones," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 102, 213-226, 2010.
    doi:10.2528/PIER10011601

    12. Lin, D.-B., I.-T. Tang, and M.-Z. Hong, "A compact quad-band PIFA by tuning the defected ground structure for mobile phones," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 24, 173-189, 2010.
    doi:10.2528/PIERB10070608

    13. Laila, D., R. Sujith, S. M. Nair, C. K. Aanandan, K. Vasudevan, and P. Mohanan, "Mobile antenna with reduced radiation hazards towards human head," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 17, 39-46, 2010.
    doi:10.2528/PIERL10071202

    14. Yelkenci, T. and S. Paker, "SAR changes in a human head model for plane wave exposure (500-2500 MHz) and a comparison with IEEE 2005 Safety Limits," Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy, Vol. 42, No. 2, 64-68, 2008.

    15. Omar, A. A., "Complex image solution of SAR inside a human head illuminated by a finite length dipole," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 24, 223-239, 2010.
    doi:10.2528/PIERB10062604

    16. Ofli, E. and N. Kuster, "Challenges in complex transmitter development in view of the increasing RF requirements (OTA,SAR, HAC)," 2009 Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference, 72-75, 2009.
    doi:10.1109/LAPC.2009.5352573

    17. Gangwar, R. K., S. P. Singh, and D. Kumar, "SAR distribution in a bio-medium in close proximity with rectangular dielectric resonator antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 31, 157-173, 2011.

    18. Kong, L.-Y., J. Wang, and W.-Y. Yin, "A novel dielectric conformal FDTD method for computing SAR distribution of the human body in a metallic cabin illuminated by an intentional electromagnetic pulse (IEMP)," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 126, 355-373, 2012.
    doi:10.2528/PIER11112702

    . Samsuri, N. A. and J. Flint, "A study on the effect of a metallic ring worn on human fingers using a simple scannable block hand phantom," 2008 Loughborough Antenna & Propagation Conference, 285-288, March 2008.
    doi:10.1109/LAPC.2008.4516922

    20. Ofli, E. and N. Kuster, "Challenges in complex transmitter development in view of the increasing RF requirements (OTA, SAR, HAC)," 2009 Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference, 72-75, 2009.
    doi:10.1109/LAPC.2009.5352573

    21. Zhang, M. and A. Alden, "Calculation of whole-body SAR from a 100MHz dipole antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 119, 133-153, 2011.
    doi:10.2528/PIER11052005

    22. Douglas, M., B. Derat, X. Liao, E. Ofli, and N. Kuster, "Hand phantom models for the assessment of SAR in the head from cellular telephones," 2010 Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (APEMC), 385-388, 2010.
    doi:10.1109/APEMC.2010.5475648

    23. Krogerus, J., J. Toivanen, C. Icheln, and P. Vainikainen, "Effect of the human body on total radiated power and the 3-D radiation pattern of mobile handsets," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 56, No. 6, 2375-2384, 2007.
    doi:10.1109/TIM.2007.903591

    24. Gemio, J., J. Parron, and J. Soler, "Human body effects on implantable antennas for ism bands applications: Models comparison and propagation losses study," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 110, 437-452, 2010.
    doi:10.2528/PIER10102604

    25. Li, C.-H., E. Ofli, N. Chavannes, and N. Kuster, "Effects of hand phantom on mobile phone antenna performance," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 9, 2763-27708, 2009.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2027081

    26. Li, C.-H., M. Douglas, E. Ofli, B. Derat, S. Gabriel, N. Chavannes, and N. Kuster, "Influence of the hand on the specific absorption rate in the head," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 2, 1066-1074, 2012.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.2011.2173102

    27. Moglie, F., V. Mariani Primiani, and A. P. Pastore, "Modeling of the human exposure inside a random plane wave field," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 29, 251-267, 2011.
    doi:10.2528/PIERB11022506

    28. Chen, I.-F., C.-M. Peng, and C.-C. Hung, "A faster means to estimate SAR values for mobile phone applications," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 8, 994-997, 2009.
    doi:10.1109/LAWP.2009.2030701

    29. Al-Mously, S. and M. Abousetta, "A study of the hand-hold impact on the EM interaction of a cellular handset and a human," International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 10, 657-661, 2008.

    30. Davis, C. C. and Q. Balzano, "The international intercomparison of SAR measurements on cellular telephones," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 51, No. 2, 210-216, 2009.
    doi:10.1109/TEMC.2008.2010328

    31. Martinez-Burdalo, M., A. Martin, M. Anguiano, and R. Villar, "Comparison of FDTD-calculated specific absorption rate in adults and children when using a mobile phone at 900 and 1800 MHz," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 49, 345-354, 2004.
    doi:10.1088/0031-9155/49/2/011

    32. Ronald, S. H., M. F. A. Malek, S. I. S. Hassan, M. S. Zulkefli, M. H. Mat, and E. M. Cheng, "A comparative study on the effect of quasi-block hand model specific absorption rate measurement," 2011 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), 1-4, Nov. 14-15, 2011.

    33. Ronald, S. H., M. F. Abd. Malek, M. H. Mat, and M. S. Zulkefli, "Study of Malaysian-sized hand phantom for GSM900/1800 application," 2012 International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (ICoBE), 335-337, Feb. 27-28, 2012.

    34. Usman, A. D., W. F. W. Ahmad, M. Z. A. Ab Kadir, M. Mokhtar, and R. Ariffn, "Microwave effects of 0.9 GHz and 1.8 GHz CW frequencies exposed to unrestrained swiss albino mice," Progress In Electromagnetics B, Vol. 36, 69-87, 2012.
    doi:10.2528/PIERB11072709

    35. Chaturvedi, C. M., V. P. Singh, P. Singh, P. Basu, M. Singaravel, R. K. Shukla, A. Dhawan, A. K. Pati, R. K. Gangwar, and S. P. Singh, "2.45 GHz (CW) microwave irradiation alters circadian organization, spatial memory, DNA structure in the brain cells and blood cell counts of male mice, mus musculus," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 29, 23-42, 2011.
    doi:10.2528/PIERB11011205

    36. Kalantaryan, V. P., R. Martirosyan, L. Nersesyan, A. Aharonyan, I. Danielyan, H. Stepanyan, J. Gharibyan, and N. Khudaverdyan, "Effect on tumoral cells of low intensity electromagnetic waves," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 20, 97-105, 2011.

    37. Attaro, E. A., T. Isernia, and G. Vecchi, "Field synthesis in inhomogeneous media: Joint control of polarization, uniformity and SAR in MRI B 1-field," Progress in Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 118, 355-377, 2011.
    doi:10.2528/PIER11051910

    38. Myllymaki, S., A. Huttunen, V. K. Palukuru, H. Jantunen, M. Berg, and E. T. Salonen, "Capacitive recognition of the user's hand grip position in mobile handsets," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 22, 203-220, 2010.
    doi:10.2528/PIERB10042007

    39. Ibrani, M., L. Ahma, E. Hamiti, and J. Haxhibeqiri, "Derivation of electromagnetic properties of child biological tissues at radio frequencies," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 25, 87-100, 2011.

    40., MCL-T., "Carbon-silicone hand phantoms for phone testing: Material conductivity and permittivity compared to hand tissues,", Retrieved June 22, 2011, from SAM Phantom: http://www.samphantom.com/handsbackground.php..

    41., , Dielectric Properties of Body Tissues Website, Italian National Research Council, Institute for Applied Physics, Florence, Italy, http://niremf.ifac.cnr.it/tissprop/..

    42. Cole, K. S. and R. H. Cole, "Dispersion and absorption in dielectrics: I. Alternating current characteristics," Journal of Chemical Physics, 341-351, April 1941.

    43. Gabriel, C. and S. Gabriel, "Compilation of the dielectric properties of body tissues at RF and microwave frequencies,", Internet document, URL: http://www.brooks.af.mil/AFRL/HED/hedr/reports/dielectric/home.html (authorized mirror at http://niremf.ifac.cnr.it/docs/DIELECTRIC/home.html), Appendix C:Modelling of the data (authorized mirror at http://niremf.ifac.cnr.it/docs/DIELECTR-IC/AppendixC.html)..

    44. Gabriel, C., "Compilation of the dielectric properties of body tissues at RF and microwave frequencies,", Report N.AL/OE-TR-1996-0037, Occupational and environmental health directorate, Radiofrequency Radiation Division, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, USA, June 1996.

    45. Gabriel, C., S. Gabriel, and E. Corthout, "The dielectric properties of biological tissues: I. Literature survey," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 41, 2231-2249, 1996.
    doi:10.1088/0031-9155/41/11/001

    46. Gabriel, S., R. W. Lau, and C. Gabriel, "The dielectric properties of biological tissues: II. Measurements in the frequency range 10 Hz to 20 GHz," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 41, 2251-2269, 1996.
    doi:10.1088/0031-9155/41/11/002

    47. Gabriel, S., R. W. Lau, and C. Gabriel, "The dielectric properties of biological tissues: III. Parametric models for the dielectric spectrum of tissues," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 41, 2271-2293, 1996.
    doi:10.1088/0031-9155/41/11/003

    48., , CST Microwave Studio in CST Studio Suite 2011 User's Manual, www.cst.com..