Vol. 123

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2012-01-03

Facet-Based Treatment on Microwave Bistatic Scattering of Three-Dimensional Sea Surface with Electrically Large Ship

By Hui Chen, Min Zhang, and Hong-Cheng Yin
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 123, 385-405, 2012
doi:10.2528/PIER11101108

Abstract

A feasible simulator, of which formulation and mechanism should be simple and time saving, is developed in this paper to overcome the difficulties of prediction on the EM scattering from three-dimensional (3-D) electrically very large ship-sea models. The work in this paper is twofold. First, the sea surfaces are supposed to be a combination of many locally-tilted slightly rough facets with two-scale profiles. The radar return from each local facet is associated to a semi-deterministic scheme which is established by combining the geometric optics limit of Kirchhoff Approximation (KA-GO) with the Bragg components of Bass-Fuks' two-scale model (BFTSM). Furthermore, we associate the complex reflective function of the respective facet by a so-called Phase-modified Facet Model (PMFM), in which the facet's phase is treated approximately as a combination of inherent part that follows a homogeneous random distribution and coherent part associated with the relative path-delay. Second, in companion with the semi-deterministic treatment of the sea scattering model, a hybrid approximate algorithm is proposed to deal with the composite scattering of electrically large ship-sea model, which is entirely evolved through facets (for the sea surface) and wedges (for the ship target). The method of equivalent currents (MEC) and a hybrid frame which combines the four path model (FPM) with the quasi-image method (QIM) are employed to calculate the scattering characteristics of the ship-like target and ship-sea interactions, respectively. The entire simulator is of comparatively significant computational efficiency, and suitable for providing a preliminary prediction on the instantaneous complex reflective functions and normalized radar cross sections (NRCS) mean levels for electrically very large ship-sea model.

Citation


Hui Chen, Min Zhang, and Hong-Cheng Yin, "Facet-Based Treatment on Microwave Bistatic Scattering of Three-Dimensional Sea Surface with Electrically Large Ship," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 123, 385-405, 2012.
doi:10.2528/PIER11101108
http://jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=11101108

References


    1. Fabbro, V., "Apparent radar cross section of a large target illuminated by a surface wave above the sea," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 50, 41-60, 2005.
    doi:10.2528/PIER04050502

    2. Luo, W., M. Zhang, Y.-W. Zhao, and H. Chen, "An efficient hybrid high-frequency solution for the composite scattering of the ship very large two-dimensional sea surface," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 8, 79-89, 2009.
    doi:10.2528/PIERM09050103

    3. Ji, W.-J. and C.-M. Tong, "Bistatic scattering from two-dimensional dielectric ocean rough surface with a PEC object partially embedded by using the G-SMCG method," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 105, 119-139, 2010.
    doi:10.2528/PIER10041101

    4. Zhang, M., Y. W. Zhao, H. Chen, and W.-Q. Jiang, "SAR imaging simulation for composite model of ship on dynamic ocean scene," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 113, 395-412, 2011.
    doi:10.2528/PIER11071501

    5. Bausssard, A., M. Rochdi, and A. Khenchaf, "PO/mec-based scattering model for complex objects on a sea surface," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 111, 229-251, 2011.
    doi:10.2528/PIER10083005

    6. Jin, Y. Q. and Z. X. Li, "Numerical simulation of radar surveillance for the ship target and oceanic clutters in two-dimensional model," Radio Science, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1045, 2003.
    doi:10.1029/2002RS002692

    7. Yang, W., Z. Q. Zhao, C. H. Qi, W. Liu, and Z. P. Nie, "Iterative hybrid method for electromagnetic scattering from a 3-D object above a 2-D random dielectric rough surface," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 117, 435-448, 2011.

    8. Qi, C., Z. Zhao, W. Yang, Z.-P. Nie, and G. Chen, "Electromagnetic scattering and doppler analysis of three-dimensional breaking wave crests at low-grazing angles," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 119, 239-252, 2011.
    doi:10.2528/PIER11062401

    9. Ergul, O., "Parallel implementation of MLFMA for homogeneous objects with various material properties," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 121, 505-520, 2011.
    doi:10.2528/PIER11092501

    10. Colak, D., R. J. Burkholder, and E. H. Newman, "Multiple sweep method of moments analysis of electromagnetic scattering from 3D targets on ocean-like rough surfaces," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 49, No. 1, 241-247, 2007.
    doi:10.1002/mop.22074

    11. Jeng, S. K., S. W. Lee, M. H. Shen, H. S. Yuan, and L. Pong, "High frequency scattering from a ship at sea," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 93, No. 5, 1436-1439, 1993.

    12. Gao, P. C., Y. B. Tao, and H. Lin, "Fast RCS prediction using multiresolution shooting and bouncing ray method on the GPU," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 107, 187-202, 2010.
    doi:10.2528/PIER10061807

    13. Burkholder, R. J., P. Janpugdee, and D. Colak, Development of computational tools for predicting the radar scattering from targets on a rough sea surface, Technical Report, Ohio State University Electro Science Laboratory, Columbus, Ohio, 2001.

    14. Cui, K., X. J. Xu, and S. Y. Mao, "EM scattering of a special kind of cavities with applications to RCS calculation of targets over sea surface," International Conference on Radar CIE, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2006.

    15. Cui, K. and X. J. Xu, "EM scattering calculation for complex targets over sea surface," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 3A, No. 6, 101-104, 2005.

    16. Xu, X. J., Y. Wang, and Y. Qin, "SAR image modeling of ships over sea surface," Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 6363, 2006.

    17. Dong, C. Z., C. Wang, X. Wei, and H.-C. Yin, "EM scattering from complex targets above a slightly rough surface," PIERS Online,, Vol. 3, No. 5, 685-688, 2007.
    doi:10.2529/PIERS061212012947

    18. Wright, J. W., "A new model for sea clutter," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 16, 217-223, 1968.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.1968.1139147

    19. Valenzuela, G. R., "Theories for the interaction of electromagnetic waves and oceanic waves: A review," Bound. Layer Met., Vol. 13, 61-85, 1978.
    doi:10.1007/BF00913863

    20. Timchenko, A. I., "Model of electromagnetic wave scattering from sea surface with and without oil slicks," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 37, 319-343, 2002.
    doi:10.2528/PIER02080106

    21. Plant, W. J. and W. C. Keller, "Evidence of bragg scattering in microwave doppler spectra of sea return," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 95, 16299-16310, 1990.
    doi:10.1029/JC095iC09p16299

    22. Bass, F. G. and I. M. Fuks, Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces, 418-442, Pergamon Press Oxford, New York, 1979.

    23. Fung, A. K. and K. Lee, "A semi-empirical sea-spectrum model for scattering coefficient estimation," IEEE J. Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 4, 166-176, 1982.
    doi:10.1109/JOE.1982.1145535

    24. Zhao, Y.-W., M. Zhang, and H. Chen, "An efficient ocean sar raw signal simulation by employing fast fourier transform," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 24, No. 16, 2273-2284, 2010.
    doi:10.1163/156939310793699064

    25. Park, J.-I. and K.-T. Kim, "A comparative study on ISAR imaging algorithms for radar target identification," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 108, 155-175, 2010.
    doi:10.2528/PIER10071901

    26. Hasselman, K., et al., "Theory of synthetic aperture radar ocean imaging: A MARSEN view," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 90, 4659-4686, 1985.
    doi:10.1029/JC090iC03p04659

    27. Andreas, A. B., A. Khenchaf, and A. Martin, "Bistatic radar imaging of the marine environment. Part I: Theoretical background," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 45, No. 11, 3372-3383, 2007.
    doi:10.1109/TGRS.2007.897436

    28. Chen, H., M. Zhang, D. Nie, and H.-C. Yin, "Robust semi-deterministic facet model for fast estimation on EM scattering from ocean-like surface," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 18, 347-363, 2009.
    doi:10.2528/PIERB09100508

    29. Ward, K. D., C. J. Baker, and S. Watts, "Maritime surveillance radar. Part 1: Radar scattering from the ocean surface," IEEE J. Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 4, 166-176, 1982.
    doi:10.1109/JOE.1982.1145535

    30. Michaeli, A., "Equivalent edge currents for arbitrary aspects of observation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 32, 252-258, 1984.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.1984.1143303

    31. Wu, Z. S. and M. Zhang, "Improved equivalent edge currents by modified edge representation and their application in EM scattering," Acta Electronica Sinica, Vol. 26, No. 9, 1998.

    32. Johnson, J. T., "A study of the four-path model for scattering from an object above a half space," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 30, No. 6, 130-134, 2001.
    doi:10.1002/mop.1242

    33. Shtager, E. A., "An estimation of sea surface influence on radar reflectivity of ships," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 47, No. 10, 1623-1627, 1999.
    doi:10.1109/8.805908

    34. Plant, W. J., "Studies of backscattered sea return with a CW, dual-frequency, X-band radar," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 25, 28-36, 1977.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.1977.1141530

    35. Hasselmann, D. E., "Directional wave spectra observed during JONSWAP 1973," J. Phys. Oceanogr., Vol. 10, No. 7, 1264-1280, 1980.
    doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1980)010<1264:DWSODJ>2.0.CO;2

    36. Luo, W., M. Zhang, C. Wang, and H.-C. Yin, "Investigation of low-grazing-angle microwave backscattering from three-dimensional breaking sea waves," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 119, 279-298, 2011.
    doi:10.2528/PIER11062607

    37. Okino, N., Y. Kakazu, and M. Morimoto, "Extended depth-buffer algorithms for hidden-surface visualization," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 4, No. 5, 79-88, 1984.
    doi:10.1109/MCG.1984.276185

    38. Cox, C. and W. H. Munk, "Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter," J. Marine Res., Vol. 13, 198-227, 1954.

    39. Ulaby, F. T., R. K. Moore, and A. K. Fung, Microwave remote sensing, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Canada, 1982.

    40. Klein, L. A. and C. T. Swift, "An improved model for the dielectric constant of sea water at microwave frequencies," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 25, No. 1, 1977.
    doi:10.1109/TAP.1977.1141539

    41. Voronovich, A. G. and V. U. Zavorotni, "Theoretical model for scattering of radar signals in Ku- and C-bands from a rough sea surface with breaking waves," Waves in Random and Complex Media, Vol. 11, No. 3, 247-269, 2001.

    42. Awada, A., M. Y. Ayari, A. Khenchaf, and A. Coatanhay, "Bistatic scattering from an anisotropic sea surface: Numerical comparison between the first-order SSA and the TSM models," Waves in Random and Complex Media, Vol. 16, No. 3, 383-394, 2006.
    doi:10.1080/17455030600844089

    43. Kozlov, A. I., L. P. Ligthart, and A. I. Logvin, Mathematical and Physical Modelling of Microwave Scattering and Polarimetric Remote Sensing --- Monitoring the Earth's Environment Using Polarimetric Radar: Formulation and Potential Applications, 43-65, Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York, 2001.

    44. Zhang, M., H. Chen, and H.-C. Yin, "Facet-based investigation on EM scattering from electrically large sea surface with two-scale profiles: Theoretical model," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 49, No. 7, 2011.

    45. Plant, W. J., "Microwave sea return at moderate to high incidence angles," Waves in Random and Complex Media, Vol. 13, No. 4, 339-354, 2003.