The design process of a double-sided slotted TORUS axial-flux permanent-magnet (AFPM) motor suitable for direct drive of electric vehicle (EV) is presented. It used sizing equation and Finite Element Analysis (FEA). AFPM motor is a high-torque-density motor easily mounted compactly onto a vehicle wheel, fitting the wheel rim perfectly. A preliminary design is a double-sided slotted AFPM motor with 6 rotor poles for high torque-density and stable rotation. In determining the design requirements, a simple vehicle-dynamics model that evaluates vehicle performance through the typical cruising trip of an automobile was considered. To obtain, with the highest possible torque, the initial design parameters of the motor, AFPM's fundamental theory and sizing equation were applied. Vector Field Opera-3D 14.0 commercial software ran the FEA of the motor design, evaluating and enhancing accuracy of the design parameters. Results of the FEA simulation were compared with those obtained from the sizing equation; at no-load condition, the flux density at every part of the motor agreed. The motor's design meets all the requirements and limits of EV, and fits the shape and size of a classical-vehicle wheel rim. The design process is comprehensive and can be used for an arbitrary EV with an arbitrary cruising scenario.
2. Johansen, P. R., D. Patterson, C. O'Keefe, and J. Swenson, "The use of an axial flux permanent magnet in-wheel direct drive in an electric vehicle," Renewable Energy, Vol. 22, No. 1-3, 151-157, January-March 2001.
3. Kim, M. J., B. K. Kim, J. W. Moon, Y. H. Cho, D. H. Hwang, and D. S. Kang, "A method for diagnosis of induction machine fed by PWM vector control," International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics, Vol. 28, No. 1-2, 275-281, September 2008.
4. Nguyen, P. H., E. Hoang, and M. Gabsi, "Performance synthesis of permanent-magnet synchronous machines during the driving cycle of a hybrid electric vehicle," IEEE Transaction on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 60, No. 5, 1991-1998, June 2011.
5. Dai, Y., L. Song, and S. Cui, "Development of PMSM drives of hybrid electric car applications," IEEE Transaction on Magnetics, Vol. 43, No. 1, 434-437, January 2007.
6. Baoquan, K., L. Chunyan, and C. Shukang, "Flux-weakening-characteristic analysis of a new permanent-magnet synchronous motor used for electric vehicles," IEEE Transaction on Plasma Science, Vol. 39, No. 1, 511-515, January 2011.
7. Choi, J. H., Y. D. Chun, P. W. Han, M. J. Kim, D. H. Koo, J. Lee, and J. S. Chun, "Design of high power permanent magnet motor with segment rectangular copper wire and closed slot opening on electric vehicles," IEEE Transaction on Magnetics, Vol. 46, No. 6, 2070-2073, June 2010.
8. Yang, Y. P., Y. P. Lah, and C. H. Cheung, "Design and control of axial-flux brushless DC wheel motors for electric vehicles-part I: Multiobjective optimal design and analysis," IEEE Transaction on Magnetics, Vol. 40, No. 4, 1873-1882, July 2004.
9. Yang, Y. P., Y. P. Lah, and C. H. Cheung, "Design and control of axial-flux brushless DC wheel motors for electric vehicles-part II: Optimal current waveforms and performance test," IEEE Transaction on Magnetics, Vol. 40, No. 4, 1883-1891, July 2004.
10. Rahman, K. M., N. R. Patel, T. G. Ward, J. M. Nagashima, F. Caricchi, and F. Crescimbini, "Application of direct-drive wheel motor for fuel cell electric and hybrid electric vehicle propulsion system," IEEE Transaction on Industry Applications, Vol. 42, No. 5, 1185-1192, September-October 2006.
11. Cavagnino, A., M. Lazzari, F. Profumo, and A. Tenconi, "A comparison between the axial flux and the radial flux structures for PM synchronous motors," IEEE Transaction on Industrial Applications, Vol. 37, No. 6, 1517-1524, November-December 2002.
12. Mahmoudi, A., N. A. Rahim, and W. P. Hew, "Axial-flux permanent-magnet machine modeling, design, simulation, and analysis," Scientific Research and Essay, Vol. 6, No. 12, 2525-2549, June 2011.
13. Mahmoudi, A., N. A. Rahim, and W. P. Hew, "Analytical method for determining axial-flux permanent-magnet machine sensitivity to design variables," International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 5, 2039-2048, September-October 2010.
14. Mahmoudi, A., N. A. Rahim, and W. P. Hew, "An analytical complementary FEA tool for optimizing of axial-flux permanent-magnet machines," International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics Machines, Vol. 37, No. 1, 19-34, September 2011.
15. Gieras, J. F., R. J. Wang, and M. J. Kamper, Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Brushless Machines, Springer Verla, 2008.
16. Mahmoudi, A., N. A. Rahim, and W. P. Hew, "TORUS and AFIR axial-flux permanent-magnet machines: A comparison via finite element analysis," International Review on Modelling and Simulations, Vol. 4, No. 2, 624-631, April 2011.
17. Gholamian, S. A., "Optimum design and manufacturing of axial °ux permanent magnet motor for electric vehicle application," Ph.D. Dissertation, K. N. Toosi Univ. Technology, Tehran, Iran, January 2008.
18. Huang, S., J. Luo, F. Leonardi, and T. A. Lipo, "A general approach to sizing and power density equations for comparison of electrical machines," IEEE Transaction on Industry Applications, Vol. 34, No. 1, 92-97, January-February 1998.
19. Huang, S., J. Luo, F. Leonardi, and T. A. Lipo, "A comparison of power density for axial flux machines based on the general purpose sizing equation," IEEE Transaction on Energy Conversion, Vol. 14, No. 2, 185-192, January 1999.
20. Aydin, M., S. Huang, and T. A. Lipo, "Design and 3D electromagnetic field analysis of non-slotted and slotted TORUS type axial flux surface mounted permanent magnet disc machines," IEEE International Electric Machines and Drives Conference, January 17th-20th, 2001.
21. Aydin, M., S. Huang, and T. A. Lipo, "Optimum design and 3D finite element analysis of nonslotted and slotted internal rotor type axial flux pm disc machines," IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, July 15th-19th, 2001.
22. Mahmoudi, A., N. A. Rahim, and H. W. Ping, "Genetic algorithm and finite element analysis for optimum design of slotted Torus axial-flux permanent-magnet brushless DC motor," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 33, 383-407, 2011.
23. Liu, C. T. and S. C. Lee, "Magnetic field modeling and optimal operational control of a single-side axial-flux permanent magnet motor with center poles," Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 304, No. 1, 454-456, September 2006.
24. Liu, C. T., S. C. Lin, and T. S. Chiang, "On the analytical flux distribution modeling of an axial-flux surface-mounted permanent magnet motor for control applications," Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 282, 346-350, November 2004.
25. Vaseghi, B., N. Takorabet, and F. Meibody-Tabar, "Transient finite element analysis of induction machines with stator winding turn fault ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 95, 1-18, 2009.
26. Torkaman, H. and E. Afjei, "FEM analysis of angular misalignment fault in SRM magnetostatic characteristics," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 104, 31-48, 2010.
27. Torkaman, H. and E. Afjei, "Comparison of two types of dual layer generator in field assisted mode utilizing 3D-FEM and experimental verification," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 23, 293-309, 2010.
28. Torkaman, H. and E. Afjei, "Magnetio static field analysis regarding the effects of dynamic eccentricity in switched reluctance motor," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 8, 163-180, 2009.
29., Opera Version 14.0 User Guide, Vector Fields, 2011, http://www.cobham.com.
30. Wang, R. J., M. J. Kamper, and K. V. D. Westhuizen, "Optimal design of a coreless stator axial flux permanent magnet generator," IEEE Transaction on Magnetics, Vol. 41, No. 1, 55-64, January 2005.
31. Saari, J., Thermal analysis of high-speed induction machines, Ph.D. Dissertation, Helsinki Univ. Technology, Helsinki, Finland, January 1998.
32. Hanselman, D. C., Brushless Permanent Magnet Motor Design, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994.