Vol. 111

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2010-12-07

Low Loss Metal Diplexer and Combiner Based on a Photonic Band Gap Channel-DROP Filter at 109 GHz

By Dmitry Yuryevich Shchegolkov, Cynthia Eileen Heath, and Evgenya Ivanovna Simakov
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 111, 197-212, 2011
doi:10.2528/PIER10110808

Abstract

In this paper we present the design, fabrication and measurements for a Wband metal Photonic Band Gap (PBG) Channel-Drop Filter (CDF) diplexer, which can also be employed as a combiner to combine signals of different frequencies into a single waveguide. A PBG CDF is a device that allows channeling of a selected frequency from a continuous spectrum into a separate waveguide through resonant defects in a PBG structure. A PBG CDF transmits straight through all the frequencies except for the resonant frequency, and thus it represents a diplexer. Reversing the wave flow directions causes it to combine signals of different frequencies from two different waveguides into a single channel, representing a combiner. The device is compact and configurable and can be employed for mm-wave spectrometry with applications in communications, radio astronomy, and radar receivers for remote sensing and nonproliferation. High ohmic losses in metals constitute the main challenge in realization of a metal CDF at W-band. To mitigate the problem of ohmic losses, the filter was designed to operate at coupled dipole resonant modes instead of coupled fundamental monopole modes. The experimental samples were fabricated in two different ways: by conventional machining and by electroforming. The comparative results of the samples' testing are presented in the paper. Frequency selectivity of 30 dB with a 0.3 GHz linewidth at 108.5 GHz was demonstrated. In addition, we suggest an experimental method to check the frequencies of separate resonant cavities of fabricated samples which do not properly operate and a possible way to adjust the geometry of the cavities for the frequencies to meet the required specifications.

Citation


Dmitry Yuryevich Shchegolkov, Cynthia Eileen Heath, and Evgenya Ivanovna Simakov, "Low Loss Metal Diplexer and Combiner Based on a Photonic Band Gap Channel-DROP Filter at 109 GHz ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 111, 197-212, 2011.
doi:10.2528/PIER10110808
http://jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=10110808

References


    1. Christopher, P., "Mid millimeter waves for broadband satellite communication 72-100 GHz," Proc. of Wireless Telecommunication Symposium, 2008, WTS 2008, 177-186, 2008.
    doi:10.1109/WTS.2008.4547563

    2. Vu, T. M., G. Prigent, and R. Plana, "Membrane technology for band-pass filter in W-band," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 52, No. 6, 1393-1397, 2010.
    doi:10.1002/mop.25216

    3. Dainelli, V., G. Giannantoni, and M. Muscinelli, "W band multi application payload for space and multiplanetary missions," Satellite Communications and Navigation Systems, M. Ruggieri (ed.), 431-446, Springer, 2008.

    4. International Telecommunication Union, www.itu.int.

    5. Yablonovitch, E., T. J. Gmitter, and K. M. Leung, "Photonic band structure: The face-centered-cubic case employing nonspherical atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 67, No. 17, 2295-2298, 1991.
    doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.67.2295

    6. Fan, S., P. R. Villeneuve, J. Joannopoulos, and H. Haus, "Channel drop filters in photonic crystals," Optics Express, Vol. 3, No. 1, 4-11, 1998.
    doi:10.1364/OE.3.000004

    7. Lin, S. Y., V. M. Hietala, L. Wang, and E. D. Johnes, "Highly dispersive photonic band-gap prism," Optics Letters, Vol. 21, 1771-1773, 1996.
    doi:10.1364/OL.21.001771

    8. Maystre, D., "Photonic crystal diffraction gratings," Optics Express, Vol. 8, No. 3, 209-216, 2001.
    doi:10.1364/OE.8.000209

    9. Kasparek, W., M. Petelin, V. Erckmann, D. Shchegolkov, A. Bruschi, S. Cirant, A. Litvak, M. Thumm, B. Plaum, M. Grünert, and M. Malthaner, "Fast switching and power combination of high-power electron cyclotron wave beams: Principles, numerical results and experiments," Fusion Science and Technology, Vol. 52, No. 2, 281-290, 2007.

    10. Kasparek, W., M. I. Petelin, D. Y. Shchegolkov, V. Erckmann, B. Plaum, A. Bruschi, ECRH groups at IPP Greifswald, FZK Karlsruhe, and IPF Stuttgart, "A fast switch, combiner and narrow-band filter for high-power millimetre wave beams," Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 48, 054010, 2008.
    doi:10.1088/0029-5515/48/5/054010

    11. Erckmann, V., W. Kasparek, Y. Koshurinov, L. Lubyako, M. I. Petelin, D. Y. Shchegolkov, F. Hollmann, G. Michel, F. Noke, F. Purps, ECRH Groups at IPP Greifswald, IPF Stuttgart, IAP Nizhny Novgorod, FZK Karlsruhe, and IFP Milano, "Power combination of two 140 GHz gyrotrons and fast switching of the combined beam," Fusion Science and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, 23-30, 2009.

    12. Djavid, M. and M. S. Abrishamian, "Photonic crystal channel drop filters with mirror cavities," Optical and Quantum Electronics, Vol. 39, No. 14, 1183-1190, 2007.
    doi:10.1007/s11082-007-9168-3

    13. Zhang, W., J. Liu, and W. Zhao, "Design of a compact photonic-crystal-based polarization channel drop filter," IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett., Vol. 21, No. 11, 739-741, 2009.
    doi:10.1109/LPT.2009.2017503

    14. Stieler, D., A. Barsic, R. Biswas, G. Tuttle, and K.-M. Ho, "A planar four-port channel drop filter in the three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal," Optics Express, Vol. 17, No. 8, 6128-6133, 2009.
    doi:10.1364/OE.17.006128

    15. Takano, H., Y. Akahane, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "In-plane-type channel drop filter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 84, 2226, 2004.
    doi:10.1063/1.1689742

    16. Takano, H., B.-S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Highly efficient in-plane channel drop filter in a two-dimensional heterophotonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 86, 241101, 2005.
    doi:10.1063/1.1941458

    17. Wang, K. and D. M. Mittleman, "Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding," Nature, Vol. 432, 376-379, 2004.
    doi:10.1038/nature03040

    18. Lin, C., C. Chen, G. J. Schneider, P. Yao, S. Shi, A. Sharkawy, and D. W. Prather, "Wavelength scale terahertz two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides," Optics Express, Vol. 12, 5723-5728, 2004.
    doi:10.1364/OPEX.12.005723

    19. Chi, C., H. Wang, S. Pai, W. Lai, S. Horng, and R. S. Huang, "Fabrication and characterization of terahertz photonic crystals," Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 4643, 19-30, 2002.

    20. Kurt, H. and D. S. Citrin, "Photonic crystals for biochemical sensing in the terahertz region," App. Phys. Lett., Vol. 87, 041108, 2005.
    doi:10.1063/1.1999861

    21. Smirnova, E. I., L. M. Earley, C. E. Heath, and D. Y. Shchegolkov, "Design and fabrication of a 100-GHz channel-drop filter," Proc. of the 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, DOI: 10.1109/ICIMW.2008.4665416, 2008.

    22. Shchegolkov, D. Y., L. M. Earley, C. E. Heath, and E. I. Smirnova, "Design and testing of photonic band gap channel-drop-filters," Proc. of the 34th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, DOI: 10.1109/ICIMW.2009.5324590, 2009.

    23. Simakov, E. I., L. M. Earley, C. E. Heath, D. Y. Shchegolkov, and B. D. Schultz, "First experimental demonstration of a photonic band gap channel-drop filter at 240 GHz," Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 81, 104701, 2010.
    doi:10.1063/1.3488376

    24. Joannopoulos, J. D., R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995.

    25. Computer Simulation Technology, Microwave Studio www.cst.com.

    26. Smirnova, E. I., I. Mastovsky, M. A. Shapiro, R. J. Temkin, L. M. Earley, and R. L. Edwards, "Fabrication and cold test of photonic band gap resonators and accelerator structures," Physical Review Special Topics --- Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 8, No. 9, 091302, 2005.
    doi:10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.8.091302