Vol. 100

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Design Optimization of a Bow-Tie Antenna for 2.45 GHz RFID Readers Using a Hybrid Bso-Nm Algorithm

By Korany Mahmoud
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 100, 105-117, 2010


Recently the Bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (BFA) has attracted a lot of attention as a high-performance optimizer. This paper presents a hybrid approach involving Bacterial Swarm Optimization (BSO) and Nelder-Mead (NM) algorithm. The proposed algorithm is used to design a bow-tie antenna for 2.45 GHz Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) readers. The antenna is analyzed completely using Method of Moments (MoM), then the MoM code is coupled with the BSO-NM algorithm to optimize the antenna. The simulated antenna and the optimization algorithm programs were implemented using MATLAB version 7.4. To verify the validity of numerical simulations, the results are compared with those obtained using Feko Software Suite 5.3.


Korany Mahmoud, "Design Optimization of a Bow-Tie Antenna for 2.45 GHz RFID Readers Using a Hybrid Bso-Nm Algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 100, 105-117, 2010.


    1. Rahmat-Samii, Y. and E. Michielssen, Electro.Optimization by Genetic Algorithms, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 1999.

    2. Boeringer, D. W. and D. H.Werner, "Particle swarm optimization versus genetic algorithms for phased array synthesis," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 52, No. 3, 771-779, March 2004.

    3. Zainud-Deen, S. H., K. R. Mahmoud, M. El-Adawy, and S. M. M. Ibrahem, Design of Yagi-Uda antenna and electromagnetically coupled curl antenna using particle swarm optimization algorithm, Twenty Second National Radio Science Conference (NRSC 2005), Cairo, Egypt, March 15--17, 2005.

    4. Rajo-Iglesias, E. and O. Quevedo-Teruel, "Linear array synthesis using an ant-colony-optimization-based algorithm," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 49, No. 2, 70-79, April 2007.

    5. Guney, K. and M. Onay, "Amplitude-only pattern nulling of linear antenna arrays with the use of Bees algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 70, 21-36, 2007.

    6. Mahmoud, K. R., M. El-Adawy, R. Bansal, S. H. Zainud-Deen, and S. M. M. Ibrahem, "Analysis of uniform circular arrays for adaptive beamforming applications using particle swarm optimization algorithm," Int. J. RF Microwave Computed Aided Eng., Vol. 18, 42-52, 2008.

    7. Mahmoud, K. R., M. El-Adawy, R. Bansal, S. H. Zainud-Deen, and S. M. M. Ibrahem, "Performance of a circular crossed-dipole array for sdma configuration adopting directivity and polarization control using particle swarm optimization algorithm," Int. J. RF Microwave Computed Aided Eng., Vol. 19, 50-59, 2009.

    8. Robinson, J., S. Sinton, and Y. Rahmat-Samii, Particle swarm, genetic algorithm and their hybrids: Optimization of a profiled corrugated horn antenna, Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Propagation, Vol. 1, 314-317, San Antonio, TX, 2002.

    9. Ayestaran, R. G., J. Laviada, and F. Las-Heras, "Synthesis of passive-dipole arrays with a genetic-neural hybrid method," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 15, 2123-2135, 2006.

    10. Zentner, R., Z. Sipus, and J. Bartolic, "Optimization synthesis of broadband circularly polarized microstrip antennas by hybrid genetic algorithm," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 31, No. 3, 197-201, Nov. 2001.

    11. Passino, K. M., "Biomimicry of bacterial foraging," IEEE Control Systems Magazine, Vol. 22, 52-67, 2002.

    12. Lin, W. and P. X. Liu, "Hammerstein model identification based on bacterial foraging ," Electronics Letters, Vol. 42, 1332-1334, 2006.

    13. Niu, B., Y. Zhu, X. He, and X. Zeng, Optimum design of PID controllers using only a germ of intelligence, 6th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, 3584-3588, Dalian, China, June 2006.

    14. Guney, K. and S. Basbug, "Interference suppression of linear antenna arrays by amplitude-only control using a bacterial foraging algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 79, 475-497, 2008.

    15. Mangaraj, B. B., I. S. Misra, and A. K. Barisal, "Optimizing included angle of symmetrical V-dipoles for higher directivity using bacteria foraging optimization algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 3, 295-314, 2008.

    16. Datta, T., I. S. Misra, B. B. Mangaraj, and S. Imtiaj, "Improved adaptive bacteria foraging algorithm in optimization of antenna array for faster convergence," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 1, 143-157, 2008.

    17. Gollapudi, S. V. R. S., S. S. Pattnaik, O. P. Bajpai, S. Devi, C. V. Sagar, P. K. Pradyumna, and K. M. Bakwad, "Bacterial foraging optimization technique to calculate resonant frequency of rectangular microstrip antenna," Int. J. RF Microwave Computed Aided Eng., Vol. 18, 383-388, 2008.

    18. Biswas, A., S. Dasgupta, S. Das, and A. Abraham, Synergy of PSO and bacterial foraging optimization: A comparative study on numerical benchmarks, HAIS 2007: The Second International Symposium on Hybrid Artificial Intelligent Systems, 255-263, Salamanca, Spain, November 2007.

    19. Korani, W., Bacterial foraging oriented by particle swarm optimization strategy for PID tuning, GECCO 2008: Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, 1823-1826, Atlanta, USA, July 2008.

    20. Shen, H., Y. Zhu, X. Zhou, H. Guo, and C. Chang, Bacterial foraging optimization algorithm with particle swarm optimization strategy for global numerical optimization, GEC'09, Shanghai, China, June 12--14, 2009.

    21. Kim, D. H., A. Abraham, and J. H. Cho, "A hybrid genetic algorithm and bacterial foraging approach for global optimization," Information Sciences, Vol. 177, 3918-3937, 2007.

    22. Panigrahi, B. K. and V. R. Pandi, "Bacterial foraging optimisation: Nelder-Mead hybrid algorithm for economic load dispatch," IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., Vol. 2, No. 4, 556-565, 2008.

    23. Stockman, H., Communication by means of reflected power, Proc. IRE, 1196-1204, Oct. 1948.

    24. Finkenzeller, K., RFID Handbook: Radio-frequency Identification Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Ed., Wiley, 2004.

    25. Jin, A., S. Takahashi, and K. Shimamura, A basic study on communication capability of 2.45 GHz band RFID Tag and communication quality with a reader, Int. Conference on Next Era Information Networking NEINE'04, 330-335, Kochi-city, Japan, September 26--27, 2004.

    26. Hung, W. S. and W. Ismail, RFID transponder using bow tie antenna for wireless application, International RF and Microwave Conference Proceedings, Putrajaya, Malaysia, September 12--14, 2006.

    27. Fan, Z., S. Qiao, J. T. Huangfu, and L. X. Ran, "A miniaturized printed dipole antenna with V-shaped ground for 2.45 GHz RFID readers," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 71, 149-158, 2007.

    28. Li, X., L. Yang, S.-X. Gong, Y.-J. Yang, and J.-F. Liu, "A compact folded printed dipole antenna for UHF RFID reader," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 6, 47-54, 2009.

    29. Delichattsios, S. A., GA optimization for RFID broadband antenna applications, http://fab.cba.mit.edu/classes/MIT/862.06/students/alki/GA pdf.pd.

    30. Harrington, R. F., Field Computation by Moment Methods, IEEE Press Series on Electromagnetic Waves, New York, 1993.

    31., http://www.feko.info/.

    32. Nelder, J. A. and R. Mead, "A simplex method for function minimization," Computer Journal, Vol. 7, 308-313, 1965.

    33. Kennedy, J. and R. Eberhart, Particle swarm optimization, IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, Vol. 4, 1942-1948, Perth, Australia, 1995.