Central Force Optimization (CFO) is a new deterministic multi-dimensional search metaheuristic based on the metaphor of gravitational kinematics. It models "probes" that "fly" through the decision space by analogy to masses moving under the influence of gravity. Equations are developed for the probes' positions and accelerations using the analogy of particle motion in a gravitational field. In the physical universe, objects traveling through threedimensional space become trapped in close orbits around highly gravitating masses, which is analogous to locating the maximum value of an objective function. In the CFO metaphor, "mass" is a userdefined function of the value of the objective function to be maximized. CFO is readily implemented in a compact computer program, and sample pseudocode is presented. As tests of CFO's effectiveness, an equalizer is designed for the well-known Fano load, and a 32-element linear array is synthesized. CFO results are compared to several other optimization methods.
2. Special Issue on Particle Swarm Optimization, IEEE Trans. Evol. Comp., Jun. 2004., Vol. 8, No. 3, 2004.
3. Dorigo, M., M. Birattari, and T. Stutzle, "Ant colony optimization," IEEE Comp. Intell. Mag., Vol. 1, No. 4, 28-39, 2006.
4. Special Section on Ant Colony Optimization, IEEE Trans. Evol. Comp., Aug. 2002., Vol. 6, No. 4, 2002.
5. Marion, J., Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems, 2nd edition, §2.7, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, NY, 1970.
6. Brand, L., Differential and Difference Equations, §56, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1966.
7. Power Basic, Inc., http://www.powerbasic.com.
8. Fano, F., "Theoretical limitations on the broadband matching of arbitrary impedances," J. Franklin Inst., Vol. 249, No. 2, 139-154, 1950.
9. Rodriguez, J., I. García-Tu˜n´on, J. Taboada, and F. Basteiro, "Broadband HF antenna matching network design using a realcoded genetic algorithm," IEEE Trans. Ant. Propag., Vol. 55, No. 3, 611-618, 2007.
10. Carlin, H., "A new approachto gain-bandwidthproblems," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., Vol. CAS-24, No. 4, 170-175, 1977.
11. Dedieu, H., C. Dehollain, J. Neirynck, and G. Rhodes, "A new method for solving broadband matching problems," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Vol. 41, No. 9, 561-570, 1994.
12. Rajo-Iglesias, E. and O. Quevedo-Teruel, "Linear array synthesis using an ant-colony-optimization-based algorithm," IEEE Ant. Prop. Mag., Vol. 49, No. 2, 70-79, 2007.
13. Balanis, C., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, §6.4, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, NY, 1982.
14. Yao, X., Y. Liu, and G. Lin, "Evolutionary programming made faster," IEEE Trans. Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 3, No. 2, 82-102, 1999.
15. Emmerich, M. T. M., K. C. Giannakoglou, and B. Naujoks, "Single-and multiobjective evolutionary optimization assisted by Gaussian random field metamodels," IEEE Trans. Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 10, No. 4, 421-439, 2006.
16. Doo-Hyun and O. Se-Young, "A new mutation rule for evolutionary programming motivated from backpropagation learning," IEEE Trans. Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 4, No. 2, 188-190, 2000.
17. Chen, T., Y. Dong, Y. Jiao, and F. S. Zhang, "Synthesis of circular antenna array using crossed particle swarm optimization algorithm," J. of Electromagn. Waves and Appl., Vol. 20, No. 13, 1785-1795, 2006.
18. Lee, K.-C. and J.-Y. Jhang, "Application of particle swarm algorithm to the optimization of unequally spaced antenna arrays," J. of Electromagn. Waves and Appl., Vol. 20, No. 14, 2001-2012, 2006.
19. Lu, Y.-Q. and J.-Y. Li, "Optimization of broadband top-loaded antenna using micro-genetic algorithm," J. of Electromagn. Waves and Appl., Vol. 20, No. 6, 793-801, 2006.
20. Ayestaran, R. Laviada, and F. Las-Heras, "Synthesis of passivedipole arrays witha genetic-neural hybrid method," J. of Electromagn. Waves and Appl., Vol. 20, No. 15, 2123-2135, 2006.
21. Mitilineos, S., S. Thomopoulos, and C. Capsalis, "Genetic design of dual-band, switched-beam dipole arrays, with elements failure correction, retaining constant excitation coefficients," J. of Electromagn. Waves and Appl., Vol. 20, No. 14, 1925-1942, 2006.
22. Tian, Y. and J. Qian, "Ultraconveniently finding multiple solutions of complex transcendental equations based on genetic algorithm," J. of Electromagn. Waves and Appl., Vol. 20, No. 4, 475-488, 2006.
23. Capozzoli, A. and G. D'Elia, "Global optimization and antennas synthesis and diagnosis, Part one: concepts, tools, strategies and performances," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 56, 195-232, 2006.
24. Capozzoli, A. and G. D'Elia, "Global optimization and antennas synthesis and diagnosis, Part two: applications to advanced reflector antennas synthesis and diagnosis techniques," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 56, 233-261.
25. Chen, X., X., T. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, "Optimization approach to the retrieval of the constitutive parameters of a slab of general bianisotropic medium," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 60, 1-18, 2006.
26. Donelli, M., S. Caorsi, F. De Natale, M. Pastorino, and A. Massa, "Linear antenna synthesis with a hybrid genetic algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 49, 1-22, 2004.
27. Inman, M., J. Earwood, A. Elsherbeni, and C. Smith, "Bayesian optimization techniques for antenna design," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 49, 71-86, 2004.
28. Sijher, T. and A. Kishk, "Antenna modeling by infinitesimal dipoles using genetic algorithms," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 52, 225-254, 2005.
29. Misra, I. S., R. Chakrabarty, and B. Mangaraj, "Design, analysis and optimization of V-dipole and its three-element Yagi-Uda array," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 66, 137-156, 2006.
30. Formato, R., TX 6-459-271, TX 6-461-552, TX 6-468-062, TX 6-464-965, TX 6-522-082, TX 6-540-042, Copyright Office, U.S. Library of Congress, Washington D. C., 2006.