For certain applications in radio astronomy, viz. radio spectrographs, spectrum monitoring etc., only the amplitude power spectrum coverage within an angle of observation could be of interest. Ideally, the antenna structures of such instruments should illuminate this covering angle with a fixed uniform gain. This might be achieved using a combination of dipole antennas, a single vertical dipole, a loop antenna etc., but are subjected to limited bandwidth. This limitation could be overcome if many electrically-identical wideband antennas are positioned across the perimeter of a circle lying in the horizontal plane such that the antennas' adjacent half power beam angles touch each other. It has been theoretically observed that if two identical antennas are positioned at an angle with respect to one-another in such a way that their adjacent half power beam angles coincide, then if the amplitude power spectrums of the two are added, the result is effectively an amplitude power spectrum obtained from a single antenna having an uniform gain and uniform signal to noise ratio within the angle subtended by them. This angle also happens to be equal to the half power beamwidth of the individual antennas. A proper design using frequency independent antennas might possibly result to an user specified uniform amplitude power spectrum gain coverage across any required angle, with a theoretically unlimited bandwidth. More number of identical antennas might be positioned in similar fashion for extending the angular coverage. The power spectrums from these antennas could be directly added which effectively represent the power spectrum from a single antenna possessing uniform gain coverage within an angle equal to the product of individual half power beamwidth angle with one less the number of antennas, thus achieving user defined gain, wide bandwidth, and uniform signal to noise ratio across the angle. It is also possible to recover the time domain signal by applying Fourier Transform on the outputs of the antennas followed by an addition of their amplitudes while keeping the phase information identical to that of one antenna (taken as reference), and taking its inverse Fourier Transform.
2. Joardar, S. and A. B. Bhattacharya, "Algorithms for categoric analysis of interference in low frequency radio astronomy," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 4, 441-456, 2007.
3. Joardar, S. and A. B. Bhattacharya, "Design and analysis of a low-frequency radio telescope for Jovian radio emission," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 72, 127-143, 2007.
4. Xu, X.-B. and Y. F. Huang, "An efficient analysis of vertical dipole antennas above a lossy half-space," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 74, 353-377, 2007.
5. Kraus, J. D., et al., Antennas for Applications, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2003.
6. Papakanellos, P. J., I. I. Heretakis, P. K. Varlamos, and C. N. Capsalis, "A combined method of auxiliary sources-reaction matching approach for analyzing moderately large-scale arrays of cylindrical dipoles," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 59, 51-67, 2006.
7. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory Analysis and Design, John Willy and Sons, 2001.
8. Joardar, S., A. Datta, A. B. Bhattacharya, and S. K. Bose, "A proposal of economical design of a computer automated VHF solar spectrograph for universities and study centers," IETE Journal of Research, Vol. 53, No. 1, 83-90, 2007.
9. Joardar, S. and A. B. Bhattacharya, "Two new ultra wideband dual polarized antenna feeds using planar log periodic antenna and innovative frequency independent reflectors," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 11, 1465-1479, 2006.
10. Mayes, P. E., Frequency-independent antennas and broad-band derivatives thereof, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 80, No. 1, 103-112, 1992.
11. Lei, J., G. Fu, L. Yang, and D. M. Fu, "An omnidirectional printed dipole array antenna with shaped radiation pattern in the elevation plane," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 14, 1955-1966, 2006.
12. Casimiro, A. M. E. S. and J. A. R. Azevedo, "A unification procedure to the analysis and synthesis of antenna arrays," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 19, No. 14, 1881-1896, 2005.
13. Li, L., H.-X. Liu, Y. Shi, and C.-H. Liang, "Study of generalized resonance in multi-antenna system and generalized foster reactance theorem," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 52, 255-276, 2005.
14. Sanyal, S. K., Q. M. Alfred, and T. Chakravarty, "A novel beamswitching algorithm for programmable phased array antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 60, 187-196, 2006.