In this paper, finite difference frequency domain (FDFD) formulation has been developed for the analysis of electromagnetic wave interaction with chiral materials, and the validity of the formulation for three dimensional scattering problems has been confirmed by comparing the numerical results to exact or other numerical solutions. The influences of the chirality on the scattered field components are investigated. Numerical results for bistatic radar cross section (RCS) are presented and compared to reference solutions and it is found that the proposed FDFD method shows good agreement. It is realized that the presented method is relatively easy to program and can be applied to a wide variety of problems of complex and composite structures efficiently.
2. Al-Kanhal, M. A. and E. Arvas, "Electromagnetic scattering from a chiral cylinder of arbitrary cross section," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagat., Vol. 44, No. 7, 1041-1048, 1996.
3. Worasawate, D., J. R. Mautz, and E. Arvas, "Electromagnetic scattering from an arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional homogeneous chiral body," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 51, No. 5, 1077-1084, 2003.
4. Akyurtlu, A. and D. H.Werner, "Novel dispersive FDTD formulation for modeling transient propagation in chiral metamaterials," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 52, No. 9, 2267-2276, 2004.
5. Demir, V., A. Z. Elsherbeni, and E. Arvas, "FDTD formulation for dispersive chiral media using the Z transform method," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 53, No. 10, 3374-3384, 2005.
6. Elsherbeni, A. Z., M. H. Al Sharkawy, and S. F. Mahmoud, "Electromagnetic scattering from a 2D chiral strip simulated by circular cylinders for uniform and non-uniform chirality distribution," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 52, No. 9, 2244-2252, 2004.
7. Berenger, J., "Ap erfectly matched layer of the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comp. Phys., Vol. 114, No. 2, 185-200, 1994.
8. Kunz, K. S. and R. J. Luebbers, The Finite Difference Time Domain Method for Electromagnetics, CRC Press, 1993.
9. Taflove, A. and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: the Finite Difference Time-domain Method, 2nd edition, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 2000.
10. Al Sharkawy, M. H., V. Demir, and A. Z. Elsherbeni, "Iterative multi-region technique for large scale electromagnetic scattering problemsâ€”two dimensional case," Radio Science, Vol. 40, No. 5, 2005.
11. Yee, K. S., "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. AP-14, 302-307, 1966.
12. Van der Vorst, H. A., "Bi-CGSTAB: a fast and smoothly converging variant of Bi-CG for the solution of nonsymmetric linear systems," SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comput., Vol. 13, No. 2, 631-644, 1992.
13. Sleijpen, G. L. G. and D. R. Fokkema, "BiCGstab(l) for linear equations involving unsymmetric matrices with complex spectrum," Electronic Transactions on Numerical Analysis (ETNA), Vol. 1, 11-32, 1993.
14. Demir, V., A. Elsherbeni, D. Worasawate, and E. Arvas, "A graphical user interface (GUI) for plane-wave scattering from a conducting, dielectric, or chiral sphere," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 46, No. 5, 94-99, 2004.