The strong fluctuation theory is applied to calculate the effective permittivity of wet snow by a two-phase model with nonsymmetrical inclusions. In the two-phase model, wet snow is assumed to consist of dry snow (host) and liquid water (inclusions). Numerical results for the effective permittivity of wet snow are illustrated for random media with isotropic and anisotropic correlation functions. A three-phase strong fluctuation theory model with symmetrical inclusions is also presented for theoretical comparison. In the three-phase model, wet snow is assumed to consist of air (host), ice (inclusions) and water (inclusions) and the shape of the inclusions is spherical. The results are compared with the Debye-like semi-empirical model and a comparison with experimental data at 6, 18 and 37 GHz is also presented. The results indicate that (a) the shape and the size of inclusions are important, and (b) the two-phase model with non-symmetrical inclusions provides the good results to the effective permittivity of wet snow.
2. Glen, J. W. and P. G. Paren, "The electrical properties of snow and ice," J. Glaciol., Vol. 15, 15-38, 1975.
3. Colbeck, S. C., "Liquid distribution and the dielectric constant of wet snow," NASA Workshop on Microwave Remote Sensing of Snowpack Properties, NASA CP2153, Ft. Collins, CO, May 20–22, 1980.
4. Ambach, W. and A. Denoth, "The dielectric behavior of snow: A study versus liquid water content," NASA Workshop on Microwave Remote Sensing of Snowpack Properties, NASA CP2153, Ft. Collins, CO, May 20–22, 1980.
5. Hallikainen, M., F. Ulaby, and M. Abdelrazik, "Dielectric properties of snow in 3 to 37 GHz range," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 34, No. 11, 1329-1340, 1986.
6. Jin, Y. Q. and J. A. Kong, "Strong fluctuation theory for electromagnetic wave scattering by a layer of random discrete scatters," J. Applied Physics, Vol. 55, 1364-1369, 1984.
7. Jin, Y. Q., "The radiative transfer equation for strongly-fluctuation continuous random media," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer., Vol. 42, 529-537, 1989.
8. Tsang, L. and J. A. Kong, "Scattering of electromagnetic waves for random media with strong permittivity fluctuations," Radio Sci., Vol. 16, 303-320, 1981.
9. Tsang, L., J. A. Kong, and R. T. Shin, Theory of Remote Sensing, Wiley Series in Remote Sensing, J. A. Kong (ed.), 162–168, New York, 1985.
10. Nghiem, S. V., R. Kwok, J. A. Kong, and R. T. Shin, "A model with ellipsoidal scatterers for polarimetric remote sensing of anisotropic layered media," Radio Sci., Vol. 28, 687-703, 1993.
11. Nghiem, S. V., R. Kwok, S. H. Yueh, J. A. Kong, C. C. Hsu, M. A. Tassoudji, and R. T. Shin, "Polarimetric scattering from layered media with multiple species of scatterers," Radio Sci., Vol. 30, 835-852, 1995.
12. Nghiem, S. V., R. Kwok, J. A. Kong, R. T. Shin, S. A. Arcone, and A. J. Gow, "An electrothermodynamic model with distributed properties for effective permittivity of sea ice," Radio Sci., Vol. 31, 297-311, 1996.
13. Wigneron, J.-P., Y. H. Kerr, A. Chanzy, and Y. Q. Jin, "Inversion of surface parameter from passive microwave measurement over a soybean field," Remote Sens. Environ., Vol. 46, 61-72, 1993.