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2016-06-28 PIER M Vol. 48, 195-203, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM16042504

Length Estimation of Ballistic Targets Based on Full-Polarization Range Profiles

Yongzhen Li and Xiaofeng Ai

This study focuses on the length estimation of ballistic targets based on the full-polarization range profiles measured by the wideband full-polarization radar system. Firstly, the mathematical model of full-polarization range profiles is introduced, and the full-polarization range profiles characteristics of typical ballistic targets are analyzed by using the microwave anechoic chamber measurement data. Secondly, three methods are proposed for target length estimation based on single-channel detection synthesis, SPAN power synthesis and target characteristic polarization, respectively. Then, comparison experiments among the proposed methods and the method based on single-polarization range profile are carried out. The results demonstrate that the extraction accuracy and the anti-noise performance of the method based on target characteristic polarization are better than the others. Furthermore, the influence of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the length estimation is also discussed.

2016-06-23 PIER M Vol. 48, 183-193, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM16050311

Analytical Synchronization Analysis of Line-Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

Abdoulkadri Chama, Albert J. Sorgdrager, and Rong-Jie Wang

A main challenge in designing line-start permanent magnet synchronous motors is synchronization analysis and determination. The transient time-step nite element simulations are often required in the design process, which is computationally expensive. An attractive alternative is to use an analytical synchronization model, which is time ecient and thus viable to be included in an optimization procedure. In this paper, two variants of the energy-based analytical synchronization model are proposed. Their viability and performance are compared with those of the existing analytical method and validated by transient nite element simulations. It is shown that the proposed methods have a better resolution and accuracy in determining the synchronization status of line-start permanent magnet motors.

2016-06-21 PIER M Vol. 48, 173-181, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM16050201

Study of Parabolic Equation Method for Millimeter-Wave Attenuation in Complex Meteorological Environments

Nan Sheng, Xuan-Ming Zhong, Qinghong Zhang, and Cheng Liao

The parabolic equation (PE) method for estimating propagation characteristics of millimeter wave, which takes into account of attenuation caused by complex meteorological environment, is proposed. The meteorological environment is treated as a mixture composed of hydrometeors and atmospheric gases. Effective permittivity of the mixture is considered in this paper. Based on the effective permittivity, the PE model for estimating propagation attenuation of millimeter wave is developed via modifying the refractive index. Finally, the model is employed to simulate the propagation characteristics of millimeter wave in complex geographical environments of irregular terrain and rough sea surface, and in complex meteorological environments of standard atmosphere, rain and fog.

2016-06-14 PIER M Vol. 48, 163-172, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM16041102

Efficient Meshing Scheme for Bodies of Revolution-Application to Physical Optics Prediction of Electromagnetic Scattering

Zohreh Asadi and Vahid Mohtashami

In this paper, we present an efficient meshing scheme for physical optics calculation of electromagnetic scattering from bodies of revolution. Piecewise linear approximation is used to represent the generatrix and circular perimeter of the body's cross section. This results in quadrilateral meshes and enables the application of multilevel search algorithms for efficient determination of the illuminated portion of the surface. Besides, the physical optics surface integral is reduced to a closed form expression using the Gordon's method. Simulation results con rm the proper accuracy and efficiency of the presented algorithm.

2016-06-09 PIER M Vol. 48, 155-162, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM16041501

ISAR Imaging Based on Iterative Reweighted Lp Block Sparse Reconstruction Algorithm

Junjie Feng and Gong Zhang

Sparse signal recovery algorithms can be used to improve radar imaging quality by using the sparse property of strong scatterers. Traditional sparse inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging algorithms mainly consider the recovery of sparse scatterers. However, the scatterers of an ISAR target usually exhibit block or group sparse structure. By utilizing the inherent block sparse structure of ISAR target images, an iterative reweighted lp(0 < p ≤ 1) block sparse signal recovery algorithm is proposed to enhance imaging quality in this paper. Firstly, an ISAR imaging signal model is established with the aid of sparse basis, and the imaging is mathematically converted into block reweighted cost function optimization problem. Then, an iterative algorithm is used to solve the reweighted function minimization problem. In each iteration, the weights are updated based on the closed form solution of the previous iteration. The proposed method is effective to exploit the underlying block sparse structures which does not need the prior knowledge of the number of the blocks. Real data ISAR imaging results are provided to verify that the proposed algorithm in this paper can achieve better images than the images obtained by several popular sparse signal recovery algorithms.

2016-06-06 PIER M Vol. 48, 145-154, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM16040509

The Focusing Optimization of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation System

Hui Xiong, Jin Hua Shi, Xiao-Wei Hu, and Jin-Zhen Liu

The transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technology development becomes a painless, noninvasive, green treatment and detection method in recent years. However, because of the difference in efficiency of the stimulation system, the technology is not widely used. The focality of the magnetic field is one of the key issues that affect the efficiency of magnetic stimulation. If the focusing problem cannot be solved, the development of TMS technology will be restricted. Therefore, research of focusing has become a hot spot in recent years. In this paper, we mainly carry out three meaningful works. First, a hybrid algorithm is proposed based on a simplified particle swarm optimization algorithm (sPSO) and simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. The convergence of those algorithms is tested. The current through the coils is optimized and solved. Second, the influence of discharge circuit parameters on the magnetic field distribution in the head model is analyzed. Finally, five array coils are established, and the related parameters are configured by using the results of above research. The simulation results show that the hybrid algorithm can improve focality performance. The hybrid algorithm is made up of sPSO and SA. The proposed optimization algorithm and the study to the parameters of the discharge circuit are useful to enhance the focality of the TMS technology in the further development.

2016-05-24 PIER M Vol. 48, 133-143, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM16012806

Precise Radial Velocity Estimation for Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar

Jianzhi Lin, Yue Zhang, Weixing Li, and Zeng Ping Chen

This paper describes a convenient technique of precise radial velocity estimation for inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR). In order to keep both the range profile and phase history of the echoes coherent, direct sampling with high sampling rate using high performance analog-to-digital converter and matched-filter correlation processing in pulse compression are used for the ISAR system. Due to the coherence property of the echoes, the translational motion compensation parameters for ISAR imaging are just the radial motion parameters of the target. Thus, the coarse velocity estimation is obtained by range alignment and fine velocity estimation is achieved by phase adjustment. The fine velocity estimation is ambiguous and the coarse velocity estimation is used for ambiguity resolution. The advantage of this technique is the high precision with range error values at sub wavelength levels, and it achieves velocity information and translational motion compensation at the same time. Both simulated and experimental validations are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

2016-05-19 PIER M Vol. 48, 125-132, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM16032404

Parameters Calculation of Asymmetrical CPW-DGS

Zhongliang Deng, Xubing Guo, Hao Wei, and Jun Gan

In this paper, an analytical method of capacitance and characteristic impedance is proposed, which is for asymmetrical coplanar waveguide with defected ground structure (ACPW-DGS). The capacitance equivalent model of ACPW-DGS is established. Using conformal mapping method and first category of incomplete elliptic integrals F(φ, k), the closed-form expressions of capacitance and characteristic impedance are obtained for the first time. Computed results match the simulated ones well.

2016-05-19 PIER M Vol. 48, 113-124, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM16021801

A Method for Ice-Thickness Detecting and Ice-Section Imaging by Using FMCW-SAR Algorithm

Rui Zhao, Yu Tian, Ling Tong, and Bo Gao

Sea ice plays an important role in global climate. Many researches focus on the measurement of the sea ice thickness. In this paper, we present a method for the ice-detecting combining frequencymodulated continuous-wave (FMCW) technology and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology. It can provide a good resolution both in the range dimension and the azimuth one. Then a simulation is conducted to verify the accuracy and the feasibility of this algorithm. The physical properties of the sea ice, such as reflection and scatter properties of the ice surface and the transmission characteristic when the electromagnetic wave travels through the ice, are considered in the simulation. The results of the simulation demonstrate that this algorithm has a good performance in ice penetrating.

2016-05-14 PIER M Vol. 48, 103-112, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM16022503

Reduction of RCS Samples Using the Cubed Sphere Sampling Scheme

Bjorn Vilhelm Persson and Martin Norsell

An alternative to the traditional method of sampling radar cross section data from measurements or electromagnetic code is presented and evaluated. The Cubed Sphere sampling scheme solves the problem of oversampling at high and low elevation angles and at equal equatorial resolution the scheme can reduce the number of samples required by approximately 25%. The analysis is made of an aircraft model with a monostatic radar cross section at C-band and a bistatic radar cross section at VHF-band, using Physical Optics and the Multilevel Fast Multipole Method, respectively. It was found that for the monostatic radar cross section, the Cubed Sphere sampling scheme required approximately 12% fewer samples compared to that required for traditional sampling while maintaining the same interpolation accuracy over the entire domain. For the bistatic data, it was possible to reduce the number of samples by approximately 35% for high sampling resolutions. Using spline interpolation the number of samples required could be reduced even further.

2016-05-10 PIER M Vol. 48, 95-102, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM16031203

''Double-Humped Effect'' in the Turbulent Collision Magnetized Plasma

George Jandieri

Statistical moments of the spatial power spectrum of multiple scattered ordinary and extraordinary waves in the turbulent collision magnetized plasma with aligned anisotropic electron density irregularities are investigated using modify smooth perturbation method taking into account diffraction effects. Correlation function and variances of the phase fluctuations are obtained for arbitrary correlation function of the electron density fluctuations. ``Double-humped Effect'' is investigated analytically and numerically using the anisotropic Gaussian spectral function of electron density irregularities for the polar ionospheric F-region applying the experimental data.

2016-05-05 PIER M Vol. 48, 87-94, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM16031604

Range Distance Requirements for Large Antenna Measurements for Linear Aperture with Uniform Field Distribution

Sergey P. Skulkin, Victor I. Turchin, and Nikolay I. Kascheev

Gain reduction on measurement of distance and on sizes of test and probe antennas are discussed. We consider only the case of linear antenna with uniform field distribution. The analysis is based on time-domain (TD) physical optics (PO) method of field calculation [1]. We show that in determining the level of the side lobe there are two competing effects: (i) the decrease in the amplitude of the signal in the direction of the side lobe and (ii) reducing the maximum signal level in the direction of zero-angle. We show the optimal measurement distance with respect to the acceptable small errors of antenna gain. It is shown that optimal relation β=b/a is about ~0.4 (a and b are the sizes of the antenna under test and the probe antenna). For this optimal relation, the well-known far-field distance criterion R0=2D2/λ can be reduced by 2 times (D is the diameters of the antenna under test and λ is wavelength). Note that when b is optimal, the errors in determining of the sidelobe levels are also small and do not exceed 0.5 dB.

2016-05-04 PIER M Vol. 48, 77-85, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM16012003

A Dual-Polarized Switchable Active Frequency Selective Surface for LTE-D Band

Chenchen Yang, Huangyan Li, Qunsheng Cao, and Yi Wang

A dual-polarized active frequency selective surface (AFSS) with switch function at LTE-D band is proposed in this paper. Double coupled metallic meandered structures on a one-layer substrate loaded PIN diodes are designed carefully to realize the band-pass characteristic at 2.6 GHz when PINs are OFF and the rejection characteristic when PINs are ON. The proposed model requires no additional biasing lines, and the amount of PINs is acceptable and affordable, which contribute to the simplicity and practicality of this AFSS in real applications. A simple equivalent circuit model (ECM) is given to better understand the design. Through full-wave simulation results, the polarization characteristics under TE and TM are almost the same, and the angle-stability stays well till 45˚. For necessary verification, one finite FSS prototype was fabricated, which was changed to one switchable AFSS by welding PINs and external feeder lines. The measured results of transmission coefficient are obtained by free space test method in the microwave anechoic chamber and agree well with the simulated ones.

2016-05-02 PIER M Vol. 48, 67-76, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM15122302

Highly Coherent Supercontinuum Generation in the Normal Dispersion Liquid-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

Zheng Guo, Jinhui Yuan, Chongxiu Yu, Xinzhu Sang, Kuiru Wang, Binbin Yan, Lixiao Li, Shuai Kang, and Xue Kang

In this paper, a liquid-core photonic crystal fiber (LCPCF) with small hollow-core filled by chalcogenide material CS2 is designed. The supercontinuum (SC) generation in such a LCPCF with nonlinear coefficient of 3327 W-1•km-1 at 1550 nm and wide normal dispersion regime spanning from 1200 to 2500 nm is numerically studied by solving the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The influences of the pump pulse parameters on the SC spectral width and coherence are demonstrated, and the optimum pump condition for the SC generation is determined. Our study work can provide an alternative way for obtaining highly coherent SC, which is important for the applications in optical coherence tomography, frequency combs, and ultrashort pulse generation.

2016-04-27 PIER M Vol. 48, 55-66, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM16021501

Decreasing the Extremely Low-Frequency Electric Field Exposure with a Faraday Cage During Work Tasks from a Man Hoist at a 400 kV Substation

Herkko Pirkkalainen, Jarmo Elovaara, and Leena Korpinen

Earlier studies have shown that the occupational exposure of electric fields at 400 kV substations can be higher than the low action level of 10 kV/m set by the Directive 2013/35/EU. One possibility for decreasing the occupational exposure is to surround the worker with a Faraday cage. The objective of the study was to investigate how effective a Faraday cage is in decreasing the ELF electric field exposure during work tasks from a man hoist at a 400 kV substation. First, we measured the electric field exposure while performing maintenance tasks from a man hoist. We then constructed a Faraday cage around the man hoist and measured the exposure again, with hopes that the exposure would be sufficiently reduced to create a safe working environment. The Faraday cage was constructed from a steel net 0.5 m in width with 19-mm meshes. The net was made of hotdip galvanized steel wire, 1.0 mm in diameter. The net and the man hoist were then grounded. The maximum electric field without the cage was 28.8 kV/m, and with the cage, it was 0.5 kV/m. The electric field, therefore, was decreased by 96.8-99.9%, validating the efficacy of Faraday cages.

2016-04-26 PIER M Vol. 48, 45-54, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM16021901

Near-Ground Transient Field of a High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Considering Nonlinear Air Conductivity and Ground Reflection

Hong-Cheng Wei and Jean-Fu Kiang

Transient field of a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) induced near ground is simulated, of which the ground reflection can not be neglected. The Jefimenko's equation is applied to compute the incident electric field near the ground, attributed to both the primary and the secondary currents in the source region. The field-dependent air conductivity in the source region is obtained by solving three nonlinear governing equations iteratively, and the reflected field is computed in the frequency domain.

2016-04-20 PIER M Vol. 48, 37-44, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM15042807

A Passive Suppressing Jamming Method for FMCW SAR Based on Micromotion Modulation

Jia-Bing Yan, Ying Liang, Yongan Chen, Qun Zhang, and Li Sun

The frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has the properties of compact size, lightweight, low cost and low power dissipation, which provides great potential in the application of small platforms such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The imaging characteristics of rotary target for FMCW SAR are analysed based on the construction of echo signal model. Further, a passive suppressing jamming method for FMCW SAR based on micromotion modulation is proposed. This method makes use of rotary corner reflector to form jamming strips in range and azimuth, and then the target screened is protected effectively. The choice of parameters of rotary corner reflectors is discussed in detail. Finally, some simulations are given to validate the theoretical derivation and the effectiveness of method.

2016-04-19 PIER M Vol. 48, 25-36, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM15122601

Backscattering Analysis for Snow Remote Sensing Model with Higher Order of Surface-Volume Scattering

Syabeela Syahali and Hong-Tat Ewe

The study of earth terrain in Antarctica is important as this region has a direct impact on global environment and weather condition. There have been many research works in developing remote sensing technologies, as it can be used as an earth observation technique to monitor the polar region (Giles et al., 2009; Park et al., 2012). In previous studies, remote sensing forward model has been developed to study and understand scattering mechanisms and sensitivity of physical parameters of snow and sea ice. This paper is an extended work from previous studies (Syahali et al., 2011; Syahali, 2012; Syahali and Ewe, 2012, 2013), where an improved theoretical model to study polar region was developed. Multiple-surface scattering, based on an existing integral equation model (IEM) that calculates surface scattering and additional second-order surface-volume scattering, were added in the model from prior research works (Ewe et al., 1998) for improvement in the backscattering calculation. We present herein the application of this model on a snow layer above ground which is modeled as a volume of ice particles that are closely packed and bounded by irregular boundaries above a homogenous half space. The effect of including multiple surface scattering and additional surface-volume scattering up to second order in the backscattering coefficient calculation of snow layer is studied for co-polarized and cross-polarized returns. Comparisons with satellite data are also done for validation. Results show improvement in the total backscattering coefficient for cross-polarized return in the studied range, suggesting that multiple-surface scattering and surface-volume scattering up to second order are important scattering mechanisms in the snow layer and should not be ignored in polar research.

2016-04-19 PIER M Vol. 48, 9-24, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM16030204

An Improved MoM -GEC Method for Fast and Accurate Computation of Transmission Planar Structures in Waveguides: Application to Planar Microstrip Lines

Nejla Oueslati and Taoufik Aguili

This paper presents a new hybridization between MoM-GEC and a MultiResolution analysis (MR) based on the use of wavelets functions as trial functions. The proposed approach is developed to speed up convergence, alleviate calculation and then provide a considerable gain in requirements (processing time and memory storage) because it generates a sparse linear system. The approach consists in calculating the total current and input impedance on an invariant metallic pattern through two steps. The first one consists in expressing the boundary conditions of the unknown electromagnetic current with a single electrical circuit using the Generalized Equivalent Circuit method (GEC) and then deduce an electromagnetic equation based on the impedance operator. The impedance operator used here is described using the local modal basis of the waveguide enclosing the studied structure. The second step consists in approximating the total current using orthonormal periodic wavelets as testing functions and the local modal basis of the waveguide as basis functions. The proposed approach allows fast calculation of such inner products through the use of the wavelets multiresolution (MR) analysis advantages, thus significantly reducing the required CPU-time for microstrip-type structure analysis [13, 14]. A sparse matrix is generated from the application of a threshold. A sparsely filled matrix is easier to store and invert [15, 16]. Based on this approach, we study the planar structures. The obtained results show good accuracy with the method of moments. Moreover, we prove considerable improvements in CPU time and memory storage achieved by the MR-GEC approach when studying these structures.

2016-04-16 PIER M Vol. 48, 1-8, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERM16030209

A Method to Extract Dielectric Parameters from Transmission Lines with Conductor Surface Roughness at Microwave Frequencies

Bin-Ke Huang and Qi Jia

This paper details an effective method to extract dielectric parameters including dielectric constant Dk and loss tangent Df from transmission lines containing rough conductor surface. The concept of effective conductivity is firstly introduced to model conductor surface roughness in transmission lines. By using differential extrapolation method, propagation parameters of transmission lines can be extracted by removing the roughness effects. A curve-fitting method based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) is adopted to fit the propagation parameters in the smoothened case and to derive the dielectric parameters. The proposed method is especially accurate for parameter extraction at high frequency and is practical to all types of transmission lines.