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Vol. 44

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2015-12-08 PIER M Vol. 44, 191-201, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15061205

Radiated Near-Field Emission Extraction on 3D Curvilinear Surfaces from 2D Data

Blaise Ravelo

This paper deals with a fast and simple computational method of 3D near-field (NF) radiation from 2D planar frequency- and time-dependent data. The established calculation method can be used to predict the electromagnetic (EM) emission from various types of electronic devices. The proposed method is originally applicable to the computation of the EM NF along the arbitrary shaped curvilinear 3D surface of multi-shape objects. The EM computation consists in the application of the planar NF-to-NF transform using plane wave spectrum. The relevance of the established method is verified with three different validation tests of analytical and practical demonstrations. The first validation is based on the analytical NF radiation from set of elementary dipoles excited by a harmonic signal. The second validation test is based on the experimented data from a hybrid active printed circuit boards (PCBs) in the frequency domain. The last validation test is performed with the measured NF data from a microstrip planar circuit in the time-domain. For all the different test cases, the plots of EM NF on arbitrary curvilinear surfaces are presented. Applications with 3D visualization or holographic surface with arbitrary geometry of EM radiation from planar data in both frequency- and time-domains confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method to predict the EM NF emission from complex PCBs. The developed 2D-to-3D computational method is particularly useful for radiated EM compatibility engineering.

2015-11-24 PIER M Vol. 44, 183-189, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15092005

A Decomposition Method for Computing Radiowave Propagation Loss Using Three-Dimensional Parabolic Equation

Guizhen Lu, Ruidong Wang, Zhi Cao, and Kehua Jiang

The parabolic equation(PE) method is widely used in radiowave propagation predictions. It has the advantages of high efficiency and stability, but it will lead to greater predicting errors in some situations, because the effects of transverse terrain gradients are not modeled. This problem can be solved by extending the 2D PE to the three-dimensional (3D) PE. However, the computing efficiency will degrade because of large scale matrix operations. In this paper, a new method is presented, in which the 3D PE is decomposed into two 2D PEs. It increases the computational efficiency and accuracy effectively. To verify the capability of the proposed method in radiowave propagation prediction, an experiment platform was set up. The computational results using this new method are compared with the experimental and Method of Moment(MoM) numerical computational results. Good agreements are achieved in the comparison.

2015-11-20 PIER M Vol. 44, 171-182, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15081807

Reconstruction of Objects Buried in Layered Media Based on an Equivalent Current Source

Peng Zhang, Peng Fei, Xin Wen, and Feng Nian

In this paper, a novel algorithm based on an equivalent current source is proposed to reconstruct objects buried in a multilayered medium. First, a radiating current source, one part of the equivalent current source, is obtained directly in closed-form from scattering data via the signal-subspace method. Secondly, a nonradiating current source, the other part of the equivalent current source, is represented with the linear superposition of vectors in the noise-subspace. Finally, the objects and equivalent current source are reconstructed efficiently by solving an optimization problem in a lower dimensional linear space with the conjugate gradient (CG) method. To test the new method, the effects of the frequency of incident wave, array aperture size, and SNR are studied in detail. Numerical results show that the proposed method has a high capacity to reconstruct objects buried in a multilayered medium.

2015-11-19 PIER M Vol. 44, 161-170, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15091402

A New Wideband Mutual Coupling Compensation Method for Adaptive Arrays Based on Cubic Hermite Interpolation

Jianhui Bao, Qiulin Huang, Xin Huai Wang, Guijie Dou, Peng Liu, and Xiao-Wei Shi

A new mutual coupling compensation method for wideband adaptive arrays is proposed. The new method is developed by combining the element pattern reconstruction method and the cubic Hermit interpolation method to achieve wideband mutual coupling compensation. For the employment of this method, mutual coupling matrices at some frequencies obtained by element pattern reconstruction method are needed and stored. By employing the cubic Hermit interpolation method, all entries of mutual coupling matrix for any frequency within the entire frequency band can be obtained accurately and efficiently. A uniform circular array with eight wideband dipole antennas is designed to verify the validity and effectiveness of the proposed wideband compensation method by numerical examples.

2015-11-17 PIER M Vol. 44, 149-160, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15090802

Reduction of Simulation Times for High-Q Structures Using the Resonance Equation

Thomas Wesley Hall, Prabhakar R. Bandaru, and Daniel Rees

Simulating steady state performance of high quality factor (Q) resonant RF structures is computationally difficult for structures with sizes on the order of more than a few wavelengths because of the long times (on the order of ~ 0.1 ms) required to achieve steady state in comparison with maximum time step that can be used in the simulation (typically, on the order of ~ 1 ps). This paper presents analytical and computational approaches that can be used to accelerate the simulation of the steady state performance of such structures. The basis of the proposed approach is the utilization of a larger amplitude signal at the beginning to achieve steady state earlier relative to the nominal input signal. The methodology for finding the necessary input signal is then discussed in detail, and the validity of the approach is evaluated.

2015-11-13 PIER M Vol. 44, 139-148, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15091503

Study of the Effects of Eccentric Plasma Coating Over Metamaterial Cylinder

Tayyab Hussain Malik, Shakeel Ahmed, Aqeel Abbas Syed, and Qaisar Naqvi

A plasma sheath can significantly alter the electromagnetic properties of an object, which leads to many practical applications. In this article, the electromagnetic scattering properties of a DB metamaterial cylinder coated with unmagnetized plasma are studied. The effects of layer thickness, non-uniform cladding (eccentric coating), electron number density, electron-neutral collision frequency and the frequency of incident wave on radar cross-section (RCS) of the object are discussed. It is found that the RCS of the DB metamaterial objects can be reduced or enhanced by appropriate values of plasma parameters, thickness or eccentricity. The anomalous behavior of backscattering crosssection of plasma coated DB cylinder has been observed at frequencies near plasma frequency. The results may serve as a noteworthy reference for experimentalists working in plasma stealth technology for metamaterials.

2015-11-09 PIER M Vol. 44, 127-138, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15090304

FDTD Based Numerical Framework for Ground Penetrating Radar Simulation

Md Omar Faruq Howlader and Tariq Pervez Sattar

In this paper, a one-dimensional numerical framework based on Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method is developed to model response behaviour of Ground penetrating radar (GPR). The effects of electrical properties such as dielectric constant, conductivity of the media have been evaluated. A Gaussian shaped pulse is used as source which propagates through the 1D array grid, and the pulse interactions at different media interfaces have been investigated. The objective of this paper is to assess the modelling criteria and success rate of detecting buried object using the framework. A real life application of GPR to detect a buried steel bar in one meter thick concrete block has been carried out, and the results present successful detection of the steel bar along with measured depth of the concrete cover. The developed framework could be implemented to model multi-layer dielectric blocks with detection capability of various buried objects.

2015-11-06 PIER M Vol. 44, 119-126, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15090702

Circularly Polarized Wave Scattering from Two-Dimensional Dielectric Rough Sea Surface

Peng-Ju Yang, Li-Xin Guo, and Qiang Wang

Based on the polarimetric scattering model of second-order small-slope approximation (SSA-II) with tapered wave incidence under linear and circular polarization, monostatic and bistatic scattering from two-dimensional dielectric rough sea surface is investigated. The emphasis of the present study is put on the Brewster effect on polarization state of scattering wave under circularly polarized wave incidence. Numerical simulations show that for bistatic configuration under circularly polarized wave incidence, the polarization state of scattering wave strongly depends on incident angle, scattering angle, as well as the Brewster angle associated with medium permittivity.

2015-10-26 PIER M Vol. 44, 109-118, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15030905

Design of a Pyramidal Horn Antenna with Low E-Plane Sidelobes Using Transformation Optics

Shaghayegh Shahcheraghi and Alireza Yahaghi

Transformation optics is a convenient way to control the pattern of electromagnetic fi elds. In this paper, using a novel transformation, we propose the design procedure of a horn antenna having low backlobe and sidelobe levels in its E-plane. By applying conformal transformation, the rectangular horn proposed in this paper can be realized with isotropic materials. This proposed antenna can be easily implemented by both ordinary dielectric materials and isotropic graded refractive index (GRIN) materials. In the rst proposed design, in addition to the isotropy, homogeneity is furthermore introduced into the horn, and only four kinds of isotropic materials are required throughout. In the second design, it is demonstrated that the designed structure can also be implemented by graded photonic crystals (GPCs) operating in metamaterial regime. They have low loss as well as broad frequency band and are easy to implement. Simulation results are presented to validate the design approach.

2015-10-23 PIER M Vol. 44, 101-108, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15082101

Permanent Magnet System and Electron Gun Design for a 3rd Harmonic Peniotron

Xinhui Wu, Jianli Huo, Biao Hu, Jiayin Li, Jufen Li, and Puchun Chen

This study discusses the operating characteristics of a large-orbit electron gun and a corresponding permanent magnet system of a 3rd harmonic peniotron. After optimization, a novel axis-encircling electron beam with axial velocity spread 4.48%, guiding centre deviation ratio 6.97% and high velocity ratio 2.03 is obtained. Driven by the electron gun, an output power of 35.4 kW is obtained, and the device efficiency is up to 56.0%, which is an attractive result in laboratories. The main advantages of such a peniotron are its compact size and low cost, which can meet the needs of vehicle, airborne and other mobile devices. The numerical analysis reveals that the relative axial position between the electrode system and magnet system has a great influence on the device performance, which needs careful control and precise adjustment.

2015-10-21 PIER M Vol. 44, 91-100, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15082006

Space-Frequency Approach to Design of Displacement Tolerant Transcutaneous Energy Transfer System

Arseny Anatolievich Danilov, Eduard Adipovich Mindubaev, and Sergey Vasilyevich Selishchev

One of the main concerns for transcutaneous energy transfer via inductive coupling is misalignments of coils, especially in the case of mechanical circulatory support systems, when coils placed on a chest wall or an abdomen. We proposed a space-frequency approach to this problem. It is possible to find values of so called splitting frequency by expression which incorporate the value of coupling coefficient. Given that coupling coefficient depends on the system geometry, it allows one to determine the optimal operating frequency for the specified relative position of the coils. Numerical calculations of transcutaneous energy transfer parameters show the capability of the proposed method. It was found that the operation at splitting frequency provided more stable output with respect to changes in a system geometry. The output power of the proposed system changes for not more than 5% for a distance in a range of 5...25 mm. At the same time, the output power of the system which operates at fixed resonant frequency changes for about 40%. Similar results were obtained for a lateral displacements in a range of 0...20 mm.

2015-10-16 PIER M Vol. 44, 81-89, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15062404

Transmission through Double Positive --- Dispersive Double Negative Chiral Metamaterial Structure in Fractional Dimensional Space

Aqeel Ahmad, Aqeel Abbas Syed, and Qaisar Naqvi

This paper presents the frequency response of a stratified structure consisting of double-positive and dispersive double-negative chiral metamaterial layers. The structure is inserted between two half-spaces of fractional dimensions. Transfer matrix approach is used for the analysis. Dispersion within the double-negative chiral layers is realized by using Lorentz/Drude model. The effect of fractionality of the dimension is particularly investigated. Numerical results, for a five layer structure, are presented for various parametric values of the stratified structure and fractionality of the host media. It is shown that the fractionality of host media can be used as yet another parameter to control the frequency response of such a filtering structure. For integral values of dimensions, the results are shown to converge to the classical results thus validating the analysis.

2015-10-13 PIER M Vol. 44, 69-79, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15073010

Low-Loss Complex Permittivity and Permeability Determination in Transmission/Reflection Measurements with Time-Domain Smoothing

Sung Kim and Jeffrey R. Guerrieri

An approach is proposed for determination of the complex permittivity and permeability of low-loss materials, eliminating half-wavelength resonances occurring in transmission/reflection (T/R) measurements. To this end, we apply the time-domain smoothing for removing resonant artifacts from the wave impedance obtained with the conventional T/R method, with an assumption that we do not have such artifacts in the refractive index. Accordingly, the permittivity and permeability are found from the smoothed wave impedance and conventional refractive index. In this paper, our method is validated by measurements for two different low-loss materials, nylon and lithium ferrite, and those results are discussed. Further, results from the present approach are compared to those from the approximate approach derived in our previous work.

2015-10-08 PIER M Vol. 44, 59-68, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15082405

Analysis and Compensation of Subreflector Displacement for the Parabolic Antenna of a Radio Telescope

Lan Chen, Zheng Xiong Sun, Jin Qing Wang, Guochun Wan, and Mei Song Tong

A subreflector system in the parabolic antenna of a 65 m radio telescope has been installed for compensating the gravitational deformation of the supporting frame in the antenna. This paper investigates the influence caused by the displacement of subreflector on the performance of the antenna and the corresponding compensation method. The investigation focuses on Ku-band frequencies and a new fitting formulation which is different from that of low-frequency bands is proposed to reduce the fitting error in the Y direction. In addition, the pointing deviation caused by the offset of the subreflector is analyzed and the model of pointing deflection caused by the displacement of subreflector is established, which can be used to improve the pointing accuracy. The model can determine the position and attitude of the subreflector with elevation and an extensive test shows that it can effectively improve the efficiency of the antenna at each elevation.

2015-10-08 PIER M Vol. 44, 47-58, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15071701

Single-Antenna Time-Reversal Imaging Based on Independent Component Analysis

Payman Rasekh, Mojtaba Razavian, Amir Torki, Hossein Khalili Rad, and Reza Safian

Time reversal techniques are based on the time reversal invariance of the wave equation. They use time-reversed fields recollected by an array antenna to perform imaging and focusing on the source of received signals. Two widely used time reversal techniques are DORT and time reversal MUSIC which are based on eigenvalue decomposition of the time reversal operator. We introduce a new time reversal technique based on independent component analysis (ICA). Time reversal ICA (TR-ICA) exploits the independence of scattered signals of the well-resolved targets to perform imaging. It breaks the mixed backscattered received signals to independent components by maximizing the non-Gaussianity of basic signals. The main advantage of this method is that imaging and focusing are achieved using only one transmitting antenna which simplifies the physical implementation drastically. We have simulated the performance of the introduced method in different scenarios such as selective focusing in the presence of scatterers with different materials, sizes and distances. In addition, the effect of noise on TR-ICA and through-the-wall imaging (TWI) are studied. Some of the results are compared to the DORT method. Finally, the validity of this algorithm is verified by performing physical measurements.

2015-10-07 PIER M Vol. 44, 39-46, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15082903

A Wideband Wide-Angle Ultra-Thin Metamaterial Microwave Absorber

Deepak Sood and Chandra Charu Tripathi

A novel design of wideband, ultra-thin, wide-angle metamaterial microwave absorber has been presented. The unit cell of the proposed structure is designed by using parametric optimization in such a way that absorption frequencies come closer and give wideband response. For normal incidence, the simulated FWHM bandwidth of the proposed structure is 1.94 GHz, i.e. from 5.05 GHz to 6.99 GHz and -10 dB absorption bandwidth is 1.3 GHz from 5.27 GHz to 6.57 GHz. The proposed structure has been analyzed for different angles of polarization, and it gives high absorption (more than 50%) for oblique angles of incidence up to 60˚. The designed absorber is in low profile with a unit cell size of λ0/6 and ultrathin with a thickness of λ0/32 at the center frequency of 5.92 GHz corresponding to 10 dB absorption bandwidth. The current and electromagnetic field distributions have been analyzed to understand the absorption mechanism of the absorber. An array of the proposed absorber has been fabricated and experimentally tested for various polarization angles and oblique incidences of electromagnetic wave. The proposed absorber is well suited for surveillance and other defense applications.

2015-10-06 PIER M Vol. 44, 31-38, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15070101

Discriminating the Frequency Dispersive Scattering Centers of Complex Targets by Wideband Group Delay Analysis

Hamid Heidar and Rahman Sofiani

Waveguide geometry is one of the most critical frequency Dispersive Scattering Centres (DSCs) in actual complex radar targets. Because of the occurrence of nonlinear dispersive scattering phase or range extension phenomena the nearby scatterers may be hidden in such cases. So, degradation of spatial resolution occurs in corresponding range profiles. According to a relatively simple parametric scattering model, a computationally efficient technique is introduced to analyze the complex range profiles including both backscattering field intensity and phase. The group delay of each scatterer is used as a criterion for discriminating the dispersive and non-dispersive ones. The wideband measured data samples are used for evaluating the technique, and the comparison is performed relative to Fourier-based results.

2015-10-01 PIER M Vol. 44, 21-30, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15052107

Analysis of a Vertical Interconnection Access by Using Longitudinal Wave Concept Iteratve Process (LWCIP)

Noureddine D. Sboui, Jamel Hajri, and Henri Baudrand

A new formulation of the Wave Concept Iterative Process (WCIP) method is presented in this work. This approach uses an analysis with the longitudinal components instead of the transverse components. This approach includes decomposing the transverse TM modes into two longitudinal terms: the TM and TEM modes. This approach is applied to model a Vertical Interconnect Access VIA hole. The current density behavior is studied in the two cases with and without VIA hole. Also this method is used to study a SIW slot antenna. Compared to those obtained by available published data, our results show that the proposed method gives convincing results.

2015-10-01 PIER M Vol. 44, 13-20, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15052902

A Photomixer Driven Terahertz Dipole Antenna with High Input Resistance and Gain

Wenfei Yin, Kenneth Kennedy, Jayanta Sarma, Richard A. Hogg, and Salam Khamas

A terahertz (THz) antenna is proposed that offers high input resistance and gain in the presence of an electrically thick GaAs substrate. The antenna is centrally fed using two vertical probes connected to a photomixer on a thin low temperature grown gallium arsenide (LTG-GaAs) film which is supported by the GaAs substrate. An input impedance of ~3.3 kΩ has been achieved using a dipole antenna that is printed on a thin dielectric slab, and isolated from the supporting substrate using a metal ground plane. A square aperture has been introduced to facilitate the illumination of the photomixer with two laser beams. Furthermore, a frequency selective surface (FSS) has been incorporated in the configuration, which results in a broadside gain of ~19 dBi at a resonance frequency of 0.97 THz.

2015-10-01 PIER M Vol. 44, 1-12, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15072403

Fixed-Image-Method-Based Transient Electromagnetic Model of Grounding System in Horizontally Stratified Multilayer Medium

Dino Lovrić and Slavko Vujević

In this paper, a frequency-domain-based transient electromagnetic model of grounding system in horizontally stratified multilayer medium is presented. The basis of the model is an improved version of the time-harmonic electromagnetic model of grounding system. Using the originally developed continuous numerical Fourier transform algorithm, the results obtained by the time-harmonic model are synthesized into a complete time domain solution. The presented model features very high accuracy and fast execution speed and is validated through several numerical examples.