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Vol. 150

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2015-03-04 PIER Vol. 150, 197-203, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIER15010201

An Omnidirectional Triple-Band Circular Patch Antenna Based on Open Elliptical-Ring Slots and the Shorting Vias

Wen-Feng Chen, Dan Yu, and Shu-Xi Gong

A circular patch antenna based on open elliptical-ring slots and shorting vias with conical radiation patterns is proposed. Fed by the coaxial probe at the center of the circular patch, the proposed antenna is excited at three resonant modes simultaneously. The first resonant mode (monopolar patch mode) is achieved by six shorting vias, each of which is placed at the center of the open elliptical-ring slot. By embedding six open elliptical-ring slots on the patch, the other two resonant modes of the open elliptical-ring slot resonator, TE110 and TE210, can also be excited. Due to symmetrical slots on the patch, these two modes can produce conical patterns, and their frequency ratio can also be tuned by adjusting the size of the slots. The proposed antenna is fabricated and measured. The measured results show that the proposed antenna can provide three operating bands which meet the required bandwidth specifications of 2.4/5.8 GHz WLAN and 3.5/5.5 GHz WiMAX standards. Detailed design considerations of the proposed antenna are described, and both the simulated and measured results are given. Moreover, the effects of the vital parameters on the performance of the proposed antenna are analyzed in this paper.

2015-03-01 PIER Vol. 150, 183-196, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIER15011407

An Efficient and Accurate Method to Solve Low Frequency and Non-Conformal Problems Using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) (Invited Paper)

Kadappan Panayappan and Raj Mittra

In this article we present νFDTD (New FDTD), an efficient and accurate method for solving low frequency problems and with those non-conformal geometries by using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The conventional time domain technique FDTD demands extensive computational resources when solving low frequency problems, or when dealing with dispersive media. The νFDTD technique is a new general-purpose field solver, which is designed to tackle the above mentioned issues using some novel approaches, which deviate significantly from the legacy methods that only rely on minor modifications of the FDTD update algorithm. The νFDTD solver is a hybridized version of the conformal FDTD (CFDTD), and a novel frequency domain technique called the Dipole Moment (DM) approach. This blend of time domain and frequency domain techniques empowers the solver with potential to solve problems that involve: (i) calculating low frequency response accurately and numerically efficiently; (ii) handling non-Cartesian geometries such as curved surfaces accurately without staircasing; (iii) handling thin structures, with or without finite losses; and (iv) dealing with multi-scale geometries.

2015-03-01 PIER Vol. 150, 163-182, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIER15011405

Recent Advances in the Asymptotic Theory of Diffraction by Elongated Bodies (Invited Paper)

Ivan Viktorovitch Andronov and Raj Mittra

The asymptotic approach to the problem of high-frequency diffraction by elongated bodies is discussed in this work. The classical expansion is shown to require the frequencies to be too high for it to be applicable. Attempts to improve the approximating properties of the asymptotic methods are discussed. It is shown that effective approximations appear under the supposition that the squared transverse dimension of the body is proportional to its longitudinal size measured in wavelengths. This is referred to herein as the case of strongly elongated body and is examined in detail. It is assumed that the body has a rotational symmetry and can be well approximated by a spheroid. The cases of axial incidence and that of incidence at a grazing angle to the axis are considered. Both the asymptotics of the induced currents on the surface and of the far field amplitude are developed. Comparison with numerical results for a set of test problems shows that the leading terms of the new asymptotics provide good approximation in a uniform manner with respect to the rate of elongation. Some effects typical for scattering by elongated bodies are discussed.

2015-02-16 PIER Vol. 150, 145-161, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIER14121504

Omnidirectional Radiation in the Presence of Homogenized Metasurfaces

David Di Ruscio, Paolo Burghignoli, Paolo Baccarelli, and Alessandro Galli

Analytical and numerical approaches are presented for modeling the interaction of azimuthally symmetric fields with omnidirectional metasurfaces, based on the use of locally homogenized equivalent sheet impedances. Radially uniform metasurfaces on layered dielectric media are described in terms of a spectral impedance dyadic, thus allowing for the derivation of the field excited by omnidirectional sources through a simple transmission-line model. In a first approximation, the effect of circular edges in laterally truncated structures is taken into account through an efficient physicaloptics method. Then, truncated and radially non-uniform homogenized layered structures are treated numerically with the method of moments, by suitably extending a recently developed spectral-domain formulation. Numerical results are presented for planar radiating structures based on omnidirectional metasurfaces, comparing the radiation patterns obtained through the proposed homogenized models with those calculated by means of full-wave simulations. The discussion emphasizes the validity of the proposed approaches and their usefulness in the analysis of two-dimensional leaky-wave antennas based on printed omnidirectional metasurfaces.

2015-02-06 PIER Vol. 150, 123-143, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIER15010802

Propagation of Partially Coherent Beam in Turbulent Atmosphere: a Review (Invited Review)

Fei Wang, Xianlong Liu, and Yangjian Cai

Partially coherent beam is preferred in many applications, such as free-space optical communications, remote sensing, active laser radar systems, etc., due to its resistance to the deleterious effects of atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, after presenting a historical overview on propagation of optical beams in turbulent atmosphere, we describe the basic theory for treating the propagation of optical beams in turbulent atmosphere and we mainly introduce recent theoretical and experimental developments on propagation of partially coherent beam in turbulent atmosphere. Recent progress on the interaction of a partially coherent beam with a semirough target in turbulent atmosphere and the corresponding inverse problem are also reviewed.

2015-01-29 PIER Vol. 150, 109-121, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIER14121603

An Overview of the Evolution of Method of Moments Techniques in Modern EM Simulators (Invited Paper)

Carlos Delgado, Eliseo Garcia, Javier Moreno, Ivan Gonzalez-Diego, and Manuel Felipe Catedra

This paper presents an evolution of the challenges and solutions found in the application of techniques based on the Method of Moments until the present day. The original MoM presented very high computational restrictions that have motivated the development of more efficient approaches. The main features of these newer improvements are presented, as well as other technical details regarding preconditioning and parallelization techniques. Some representative examples are shown in order to assert the suitability of these approaches for the analysis of complex and realistic scenarios.

2015-01-19 PIER Vol. 150, 97-107, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIER14113002

Resolution of the Frequency Diverse Metamaterial Aperture Imager

Okan Yurduseven, Mohammadreza F. Imani, Hayrettin Odabasi, Jonah Gollub, Guy Lipworth, Alec Rose, and David R. Smith

The resolution of a frequency diverse compressive metamaterial aperture imager is investigated. The aperture consists of a parallel plate waveguide, in which an array of complementary, resonant metamaterial elements is patterned into one of the plates. Microwaves injected into the waveguide leak out through the resonant metamaterial elements, forming a spatially diverse waveform at the scene. As the frequency is scanned, the waveforms change, such that scene information can be encoded onto a set of frequency measurements. The compressive nature of the metamaterial imager enables image reconstruction from significantly reduced number of measurements. We characterize the resolution of this complex aperture by studying the simulated point spread function (PSF) computed using different image reconstruction techniques. We compare the imaging performance of the system with that expected from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) limits.

2015-01-12 PIER Vol. 150, 89-96, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIER14092602

A Study on the Biocompatibility of Surface-Modified Au/Ag Alloyed Nanobox Particles in Zebrafish in Terms of Mortality Rate, Hatch Rate and Imaging of Particle Distribution Behavior

Kanghui Li, Xinyuan Zhao, Yixing Zhai, Guangdi Chen, El-Hang Lee, and Sailing He

We report, for the first time, a study on the biocompatibility of the poly(ethylene glycol)-thiol (PEG)-coated Au/Ag alloyed nanobox (PC-ANB) particles in zebrafish. We measured the mortality rate and the hatch rate of the zebrafish embryos injected with the PC-ANB particles and observed the distribution of the PC-ANB particles in the zebrafish embryos at different stages of growth development. The results show that the PC-ANB particles have negligible toxicity to the zebrafish embryos even at extra-high concentration (1.2 mg ml-1), while uncoated Ag nanoparticles, used in the form of nanospheres or nanoplates, were found to cause embryo deformation or even death. Additionally, we have investigated the distribution of the PC-ANB particles within the zebrafish in the interest of studying their behavior in the zebrafish using imaging. For this, we used the three-photon luminescence imaging technique and it has been found that the PC-ANB particles mainly assemble in the backside muscle tissues of the zebrafish, suggesting that the PC-ANB particles are mostly metabolized out after about 96 hours of growth development.

2015-01-07 PIER Vol. 150, 73-87, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIER14101408

A Comparison Between Different Schemes of Microwave Cancer Hyperthermia Treatment by Means of Left-Handed Metamaterial Lenses

Luca Leggio, Omar de Varona, and Ehsan Dadrasnia

In the hyperthermia therapy, multiple microwave sources can be arranged with appropriate spacing around the tissue containing tumor by using left-handed material (LHM) lenses. We employ some low loss LHM lenses schemes for an effective non-invasive microwave hyperthermia treatment of large tumors up to several centimeters of depth inside the biological tissues. Different configurations of LHM lenses are proposed and compared in order to assess the efficiency of hyperthermia treatment. High-resolution focusing of microwave radiation can be achieved by joint heating of several microwave antennas behind a conformal flat LHM lens. We show that a microwave radiation can be effectively focused in a 1.2 cm diameter tumor located within a lossy breast tissue. The results show that hyperthermia (temperature over 42°) is reached and then maintained for one hour without involving the surrounding healthy tissues. Lastly, the heating area is adjusted in both lateral and longitudinal directions changing the position of the microwave sources or selecting LHM lenses with different thickness. This approach confirms that the conformal four-lens system is more efficient to achieve microwave tumor hyperthermia than single- and double-lens schemes.

2015-01-06 PIER Vol. 150, 59-71, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIER14092002

Tunable Amplitude and Phase Modulation in Terahertz Regime Using Transverse Stratified Configuration

Daniele Lo Forti, Robert G. Lindquist, and Martin S. Heimbeck

A number of transverse stratified configurations of metal and dielectric layers are studied for modulating Terahertz radiation in amplitude and phase. Pass band flat-top response and high wide-band transmission is achieved by means of a metallic grating filled with Liquid Crystal (LC) in different configurations and with the use of either grazing angles of incidence or cuts pierced within the grating. The transverse configuration with thin LC films allows for high speed tunability with low applied voltage. A dielectric grating with non-continuous electrodes is studied showing wide pass band response suitable for phase modulation applications.

2015-01-06 PIER Vol. 150, 49-57, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIER14110104

Spatially Mapped Metamaterials Make a New Magnetic Concentrator for the Two-Coil System

Yingyi Zhang, Chen Yao, Houjun Tang, and Yuncheng Li

Magnetic lens based on metamaterials has helped to increase the inductive coupling of two-coil system in wireless power transfer. By coordinate transformation, the spatially mapped metamaterials are proposed in this paper for a new magnetic concentrator in two-coil system to improve the mutual coupling. To achieve such metamaterials, the virtual rectangular domain is spatially mapped into a deformed spherical shell. The effects of such mapped spherical shell, functioning as magnetic concentrator, are simulated and evaluated. The fabrication and simplification of this magnetic concentrator are also considered. Finally, this model of spherical shell is compared with that of a traditional magnetic concentrator to demonstrate its advantage.

2015-01-06 PIER Vol. 150, 41-48, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIER14102507

Efficient Evaluation of Near-Field Time-Domain Physical-Optics Integral Using Locally Expanded Green Function Approximation

Xiao Zhou and Tie-Jun Cui

A time-efficient method is proposed to calculate the near-field time-domain physical-optics (TD-PO) integral to analyze the transient electromagnetic fields scattered from three-dimensional perfectly conducting objects under the illumination of a pulsed plane wave. It is shown that the TDPO integral can be reduced to a close-form expression by introducing locally expanded Green-function approximations used in conjunction with the surface partitioning. As a result, the near-field TD-PO response to a general pulsed plane wave excitation is derived by a convolution of the excitation waveform with the TD-PO impulse response, which can be performed in a closed form. To satisfy the causality, i.e., the transient field cannot travel away from the sources faster than the speed of light, the high-order derivative of a modulated-Gaussian wave is specified as the excitation waveform. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed near-field formulas are validated through numerical examples.

2015-01-06 PIER Vol. 150, 29-40, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIER14100504

A Waveguide Verification Standard Design Procedure for the Microwave Characterization of Magnetic Materials

Benjamin R. Crowgey, Junyan Tang, Edward J. Rothwell, Balasubramaniam Shanker, and Leo C. Kempel

A waveguide standard is introduced for validation purposes on the measurement accuracy of electric and magnetic properties of materials at microwave frequencies. The standard acts as a surrogate material with both electric and magnetic properties and is useful for verifying systems designed to characterize engineered materials using the Nicolson-Ross-Weir technique. A genetic algorithm is used to optimize the all-metallic structure to produce a surrogate with both relative permittivity and permeability within a target range across S-band. A mode-matching approach allows the user to predict the material properties with high accuracy, and thus compensate for differences in geometry due to loose fabrication tolerances or limited availability of component parts. The mode-matching method also allows the user to design standards that may be used within other measurement bands. An example standard is characterized experimentally, the errors due to uncertainties in measured dimensions and to experimental repeatability are explored, and the usefulness of the standard as a verification tool is validated.

2015-01-06 PIER Vol. 150, 13-27, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIER14111502

Stored Electromagnetic Energy and Antenna Q (Invited Paper)

Mats Gustafsson and Lars Jonsson

Decomposition of the electromagnetic energy into its stored and radiated parts is instrumental in the evaluation of antenna Q and the corresponding fundamental limitations on antennas. This decomposition is not unique and there are several proposals in the literature. Here, it is shown that stored energy defined from the difference between the energy density and the far field energy equals the energy expressions proposed by Vandenbosch for many but not all cases. This also explains the observed cases with negative stored energy and suggests a possible remedy to them. The results are compared with the classical explicit expressions for spherical regions where the results only differ by the electrical size ka that is interpreted as the far-field energy in the interior of the sphere. Q

2015-04-03 PIER Vol. 150, 1-12, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIER15030702

An Adaptive Path Loss Channel Model for Wave Propagation in Multilayer Transmission Medium

Mohammad H. Ramezani, Victoria Blanes-Vidal, and Esmaeil S. Nadimi

Advances in micro robots in non-invasive medicine have enabled physicians to perform diagnostic and therapeutic procedures with higher resolution and lower risk than before. However, navigation and precise localisation of such micro robots inside human body still remains a challenge. This is mostly due to the 1) lack of precise communication channel models, 2) inhomogeneity of the propagation medium and 3) non-geometric boundaries of the tissues morphometric parameters. In this study, we derive novel intra-body path loss channel models for wave propagation in wireless capsule endoscopy, i.e., propagation through the gastrointestinal tract and the abdominal wall. We formulate an adaptive attenuation parameter as a function of permittivity, conductivity and the thickness of various layers between the transmitter and the receiver. The standard deviation of modelling error of the path loss using our adaptive channel model is smaller than 50% of that of existing channel models. We further analyse the sensitivity of the path loss model to the variations of thickness of different abdominal wall layers. We finally show that the thickness of the fat layer has the greatest influence on the total attenuation parameter of the path loss model and therefore, we modify our adaptive model accordingly.